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From Wikipedia: Richard II of England


Portrait Richard II of England

Portrait Richard II of England

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399. Richard, a son of Edward, the Black Prince, was born in Bordeaux during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III, and while his father was Prince of Aquitaine. Richard was the younger brother of Edward of Angoulême, upon whose death Richard, at three years of age, became second in line to the throne after his father. Upon the death of Richard’s father prior to the death of Edward III, Richard, by primogeniture, became the heir apparent to the throne. With Edward III’s death the following year, Richard succeeded to the throne at the age of ten.

Quick facts: Richard II, King of England (more…) …
During Richard’s first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of councils. Most of the aristocracy preferred this to a regency led by the king’s uncle, John of Gaunt, yet Gaunt remained highly influential. The first major challenge of the reign was the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381. The young king played a major part in the successful suppression of this crisis. In the following years, however, the king’s dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent among the influential, and in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant. By 1389 Richard had regained control, and for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents.

In 1397, Richard took his revenge on the appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. The next two years have been described by historians as Richard’s “tyranny”. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt’s son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who had previously been exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Although he initially claimed that his goal was only to reclaim his patrimony, it soon became clear that Henry intended to claim the throne for himself. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV. Richard died in captivity in February 1400; he is thought to have been starved to death, although questions remain regarding his final fate.

Richard was said to have been tall, good-looking and intelligent. Less warlike than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years’ War that Edward III had started. He was a firm believer in the royal prerogative, which led him to restrain the power of the aristocracy, and to rely on a private retinue for military protection instead; in contrast to the fraternal, martial court of his grandfather, he cultivated a refined atmosphere at his court, in which the king was an elevated figure, with art and culture at its centre.

Richard’s posthumous reputation has been shaped to a large extent by William Shakespeare, whose play Richard II portrayed Richard’s misrule and his deposition by Bolingbroke as responsible for the 15th-century Wars of the Roses. Modern historians do not accept this interpretation, while not exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. While probably not insane, as historians of the 19th and 20th centuries believed, he may have had what psychologists today identify as a personality disorder, particularly manifesting itself towards the end of his reign. Most authorities agree that, even though his policies were not unprecedented or entirely unrealistic, the way in which he carried them out was unacceptable to the political establishment, and this led to his downfall. <a href=”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England?wprov=sfla1“>Read entire article

” Dusk ” 1524- 1531 detail at the tomb of Lorenzo de Medici by Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarotti at Sagrestia Nuova , San Lorenzo, Florence


” Dusk ” 1524- 1531 detail at the tomb of Lorenzo de Medici by Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarotti at Sagrestia Nuova , San Lorenzo, Florence

Watch “Liszt Chasse-neige Transcedental Etude #12 Valentina Lisitsa” on YouTube


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The beautiful River Lune in Lancaster, England.


The beautiful River Lune in Lancaster, England.

The beautiful River Lune in Lancaster, England.

” Foundation of the Library ” 1477 Fresco by early Renaissance artist Melozzo da Forli at Pinacoteca in Vatican


” Foundation of the Library ” 1477 Fresco by early Renaissance artist Melozzo da Forli at Pinacoteca in Vatican

” The Passion Pulpit ” 1460-1465 Artist: Donatello Period: Early Renaissance Location: San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy It is made from marble and Bronze


” The Passion Pulpit ” 1460-1465 Artist: Donatello Period: Early Renaissance Location: San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy It is made from marble and Bronze

Să iubești pe cineva care nu te iubeşte…


Să iubești pe cineva care nu te iubeşte...

Să iubești pe cineva care nu te iubeşte…

Țara mea e Țara Făgăraşului


Țara mea e Țara Făgăraşului

Țara mea e Țara Făgăraşului

‘Sunrise’ detail ~ Claude Monet


'Sunrise' detail ~ Claude Monet

‘Sunrise’ detail ~ Claude Monet

A cave on a beach in Greece


A cave on a beach in Greece

A cave on a beach in Greece

A Lakota man. ca. 1895-1899. South Dakota. Photo by Jesse H. Bratley. Source – Denver Museum of Nature and Science.


A Lakota man. ca. 1895-1899. South Dakota. Photo by Jesse H. Bratley. Source - Denver Museum of Nature and Science.

A Lakota man. ca. 1895-1899. South Dakota. Photo by Jesse H. Bratley. Source – Denver Museum of Nature and Science.

My unique butterfly


My unique butterfly

My unique butterfly

Watch “The stories behind The New Yorker’s iconic covers | Françoise Mouly” on YouTube


Today’s Holiday: Gabon Independence Day


Today’s Holiday:
Gabon Independence Day

Gabon gained official independence from France on August 17, 1960, after more than a century of domination. August 17 is a public holiday, but celebrations often extend to the days before and after Independence Day, with parades and dancing. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Mae West (1893)


Today’s Birthday:
Mae West (1893)

West was an American stage and movie comedienne who started her career in burlesque and vaudeville. In 1926, she began to write, produce, and star in her own Broadway plays, which were often replete with sexual innuendo. A master of the double entendre, she treated sex with broad humor in popular films such as I’m No Angel. As a result, she constantly battled the censorship of the motion picture Production Code. What was dubbed a “Mae West” during World War II? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

This Day in History: Miles Davis’s Kind of Blue Is Released (1959)


This Day in History:
Miles Davis’s Kind of Blue Is Released (1959)

Recorded in just two sessions in the spring of 1959, Miles Davis’s Kind of Blue is widely considered to be one of the most important jazz albums ever produced. Davis assembled a group of talented musicians—including saxophonist John Coltrane and pianist Bill Evans—and gave them minimal instructions before recording. Possibly the best-selling jazz album of all time, Kind of Blue is notable for having left out something considered to be the backbone of earlier jazz composition—what? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Quote of the Day: Ambrose Bierce


Quote of the Day:
Ambrose Bierce

I is the first letter of the alphabet, the first word of the language, the first thought of the mind, the first object of affection. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Article of the Day: The Cooper’s Hill Cheese Rolling and Wake


Article of the Day:
The Cooper’s Hill Cheese Rolling and Wake

The Cooper’s Hill Cheese Rolling and Wake is a 200-year-old competition held annually in the Cotswolds region of England. Drawing both local and international participants, the race begins when a round of Double Gloucester cheese is set loose at the top of a steep hill. Competitors dash after it, risking sprained ankles, broken bones, and concussions in the chase. Even spectators risk injury, as the cheese reaches speeds of 70 mph (113 km/h). What does the first person over the finish line win? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Idiom of the Day: know every trick in the book


Idiom of the Day:
know every trick in the book

To be aware of or knowledgeable in every possible way to do or achieve something, especially ways that are clever, cunning, or ethically questionable. Watch the video…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Word of the Day: laic


Word of the Day:
laic

Definition: (adjective) Of or relating to the laity.
Synonyms: lay, secular
Usage: He was a laic leader, but many of his followers believed him to be a prophet.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

It’s a perfect day on Convict Lake right now!


It's a perfect day on Convict Lake right now!

It’s a perfect day on Convict Lake right now!

My pistachio ice cream cone


My pistachio ice cream cone

My pistachio ice cream cone

My freshly squeezed orange juice


My freshly squeezed orange juice

My freshly squeezed orange juice

My cactus in flower


My cactus in flower

My cactus in flower

Biertan


Biertan

Biertan

Mărgineni: E lângă Făgăraș


Mărgineni : E lângă Făgăraș...

Mărgineni: E lângă Făgăraș…

Two men in a boat


Two men in a boat

Two men in a boat

My Duck today


My Duck today

My Duck today

France 24 : Trump disbands business councils after CEOs quit in protest over Charlottesville comments


Trump disbands business councils after CEOs quit in protest over Charlottesville comments

US President Donald Trump disbanded two high-profile business advisory councils on Wednesday after corporate CEOs quit in protest at his remarks blaming “both sides” for last weekend’s violence in Charlottesville, Virginia.

http://www.france24.com/en/20170816-trump-disbands-business-councils-ceos-quit-protest-charlottesville

France 24 : Elvis fans mark 40 years since death of ‘The King’


Elvis fans mark 40 years since death of ‘The King’

Tens of thousands of Elvis Presley fans gathered at Graceland, his iconic Memphis mansion, on Wednesday to honour “The King of Rock” on the 40th anniversary of his death.

http://www.france24.com/en/20170816-elvis-presley-fans-mark-40-years-death-anniversary-graceland-memphis

More than 600,000 fans visit Graceland each year, paying tribute to the icon of popular culture of whom John Lennon once said, “Before Elvis there was nothing.” Forty years after his tragic death at age 42, floral tributes from around the world still line the Meditation Garden, where the king of rock ‘n’ roll is buried at his Memphis home. Tens of thousands attended a candlelight vigil on Tuesday to mark the anniversary. Among them was Presley’s daughter Lisa Marie, who thanked the crowd and lit candles for fans.

BBC News: Bush presidents wade into Trump furore over Charlottesville


I saw this on the BBC and thought you should see it:

Bush presidents wade into Trump furore over Charlottesville – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-40946386

Adoration of the Magi by Leonardo da Vinci – Uffizi Gallery


http://lovefromtuscany.com/adoration-of-the-magi-by-leonardo-da-vinci/

From Leonardo da Vbinci to Botticelli, Michelangelo and Titian. Here’s a shortlist of all most famous Renaissance paintings to be found at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Hope you’ll enjoy it!

Adoration of the Magi by Leonardo, details – Uffizi Gallery

Adoration of the Magi by Leonardo, details – Uffizi Gallery

Today’s Holiday: Daimonji Okuribi


Today’s Holiday:
Daimonji Okuribi

In Japan, the belief that the souls of the dead return to earth during the Obon Festival gave rise to the custom of lighting great bonfires to guide the souls back to heaven after their yearly visit. This custom is known as Daimonji Okuribi, the Great Bonfire Event. In the city of Kyoto, an enormous flammable structure, built in the shape of the Chinese character dai, meaning “big,” is set on fire on the hill in back of the Zenrinji Temple. The character is 530 feet tall and 510 feet wide, providing a spectacular display for city residents. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Today’s Birthday: Thomas Edward Lawrence (1888)


Today’s Birthday:
Thomas Edward Lawrence (1888)

Lawrence was a British adventurer, soldier, and scholar popularly known as Lawrence of Arabia. He learned Arabic while on an archaeological expedition in Mesopotamia, then served in intelligence for the British army in Egypt during WWI. After conceiving a plan to support an Arab rebellion against the Ottoman Empire—a German ally—he joined the Arab forces and became a leader in the revolt, but he failed to achieve the formation of an independent Arab state. What did he later do under false names? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

This Day in History: First Issue of Sports Illustrated Is Published (1954)


This Day in History:
First Issue of Sports Illustrated Is Published (1954)

The first issue of Sports Illustrated—featuring Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat—was published in 1954. The brainchild of Henry Luce, the founder of Time magazine, it became one of the most influential sports magazines in America. Though Sports Illustrated originally covered a wide range of sports, including hunting and yachting, today it focuses on major sports, such as football and baseball. When was the annual swimsuit issue first published? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Quote of the Day: Francis Bacon


Quote of the Day:
Francis Bacon

By indignities men come to dignities. More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Article of the Day: Supermassive Black Holes


Article of the Day:
Supermassive Black Holes

A supermassive black hole is a black hole containing the mass of between a hundred thousand and tens of billions of Suns. Scientists believe that most, if not all, galaxies, including the Milky Way, contain supermassive black holes at their galactic centers. They also cite a link between the mass of the supermassive black hole in the center of a galaxy and the morphology, or structure, of the galaxy itself. Where is the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole thought to be located? More…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Idiom of the Day: knock (one’s) head against a/the wall


Idiom of the Day:
knock (one’s) head against a/the wall

To attempt continuously and fruitlessly to accomplish some task or achieve some goal that is or seems ultimately hopeless. Watch the video…: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Word of the Day: lore


Word of the Day:
lore

Definition: (noun) Accumulated facts, traditions, or beliefs about a particular subject.
Synonyms: traditional knowledge
Usage: He had taught the children something of the forest lore that he had himself learned from Tiger Lily and Tinker Bell, and knew that in their dire hour they were not likely to forget it.: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tfd.mobile.TfdSearch

Watch “Munchen 2017 – Germania” on YouTube


Flori de august


Flori de august

Flori de august

Wikipedia Main Page: Jennifer Lawrence


Jennifer Lawrence speaking at the 2015 San Diego Comic Con International, for

Jennifer Lawrence speaking at the 2015 San Diego Comic Con International, for “X-Men: Apocalypse”, at the San Diego Convention Center in San Diego, California.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File%3AJennifer_Lawrence_SDCC_2015_X-Men.jpg

Gregorian calendar


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregorian_calendar?wprov=sfla1

The Gregorian calendar is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582.

Quick facts
The calendar was a refinement to the Julian calendar involving a 0.002% correction in the length of the year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the northern vernal equinox, which helps set the date for Easter. Transition to the Gregorian calendar would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe. Protestants and Eastern Orthodox countries continued to use the traditional Julian calendar and adopted the Gregorian reform after a time, at least for civil purposes and for the sake of convenience in international trade. The last European country to adopt the reform was Greece, in 1923. Many (but not all) countries that have traditionally used the Islamic and other religious calendars have come to adopt this calendar for civil purposes.

The Gregorian reform contained two parts: a reform of the Julian calendar as used prior to Pope Gregory XIII’s time and a reform of the lunar cycle used by the Church, with the Julian calendar, to calculate the date of Easter. The reform was a modification of a proposal made by Aloysius Lilius. His proposal included reducing the number of leap years in four centuries from 100 to 97, by making 3 out of 4 centurial years common instead of leap years. Lilius also produced an original and practical scheme for adjusting the epacts of the moon when calculating the annual date of Easter, solving a long-standing obstacle to calendar reform.

The Gregorian reform modified the Julian calendar’s scheme of leap years as follows:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.
In addition to the change in the mean length of the calendar year from 365.25 days (365 days 6 hours) to 365.2425 days (365 days 5 hours 49 minutes 12 seconds), a reduction of 10 minutes 48 seconds per year, the Gregorian calendar reform also dealt with the accumulated difference between these lengths. The canonical Easter tables were devised at the end of the third century, when the vernal equinox fell either on 20 March or 21 March depending on the year’s position in the leap year cycle. As the rule was that the full moon preceding Easter was not to precede the equinox, the date was fixed at 21 March for computational purposes and the earliest date for Easter was fixed at 22 March. The Gregorian calendar reproduced these conditions by removing ten days.

To unambiguously specify a date, dual dating or Old Style and New Style dates are sometimes used. Dual dating gives two consecutive years for a given date because of differences in the starting date of the year or to give both the Julian and the Gregorian dates. The “Old Style” (O.S.) and “New Style” (N.S.) notations indicate either that the start of the Julian year has (or has not) been adjusted to start on 1 January (even though documents written at the time use a different start of year), or that a date conforms to the (old) Julian calendar rather than the (new) Gregorian.

The Gregorian calendar continued to use the previous calendar era (year-numbering system), which counts years from the traditional date of the nativity (Anno Domini), originally calculated in the 6th century by Dionysius Exiguus. This year-numbering system, also known as Dionysian era or Common Era, is the predominant international standard today.

Christopher Clavius (1538–1612), German mathematician and astronomer.

Christopher Clavius (1538–1612), German mathematician and astronomer.

E. Hulsius (engraver, presumably Esaias van Hulsen, active in the first quarter of the 17th century)

E. Hulsius (engraver, presumably Esaias van Hulsen, active in the first quarter of the 17th century)

First page of the papal bull Inter gravissimas

First page of the papal bull Inter gravissimas

Inscription on the grave of Gregory XIII, St. Peter's Basilica, gregorian calendar

Inscription on the grave of Gregory XIII, St. Peter’s Basilica, gregorian calendar

Watch “Ave Maria Schubert Liszt Valentina Lisitsa” on YouTube


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Watch “VATICANO – The Assumption of Mary” on YouTube


Watch “Mary: The Assumption” on YouTube


Watch “02_Maria Tanase: Ma dusei sa trec la Olt” on YouTube