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Serum protein electrophoresis – Wikipedia

Serum protein electrophoresis

Protein electrophoresis (schematic)

Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP or SPE) is a laboratory test that examines specific proteins in the blood called globulins.[1] The most common indications for a serum protein electrophoresis test are to diagnose or monitor multiple myeloma, a monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS), or further investigate a discrepancy between a low albumin and a relatively high total protein. Unexplained bone pain, anemia, proteinuria, renal insufficiency, and hypercalcemia are also signs of multiple myeloma, and indications for SPE.[2] Blood must first be collected, usually into an airtight vial or syringe. Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique in which the blood serum (the fluid portion of the blood after the blood has clotted) is applied to an acetate membrane soaked in a liquid buffer.,[3][4] to a buffered agarose gel matrix, or into liquid in a capillary tube, and exposed to an electric current to separate the serum protein components into five major fractions by size and electrical charge: serum albumin, alpha-1 globulins, alpha-2 globulins, beta 1 and 2 globulins, and gamma globulins.

Serum protein electrophoresis
[edit on Wikidata]

Normal serum protein electrophoresis diagram with legend of different zones.

Schematic representation of a protein electrophoresis gel
Acetate or gel electrophoresis
Capillary electrophoresis
Serum protein fractions


Basilica di San Pietro in Rome !

Basilica di San Pietro in Rome !

Basilica di San Pietro in Rome !

6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia – Wikipedia

6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia

The 6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia was a peacetime infantry regiment that was activated for federal service in the Union army for three separate terms during the American Civil War. The regiment gained notoriety as the first unit in the Union army to suffer casualties in action during the Civil War in the Baltimore Riot and the first militia unit to arrive in Washington D.C. in response to President Abraham Lincoln’s initial call for 75,000 troops. Private Luther C. Ladd of the 6th Massachusetts is often referred to as the first Union soldier killed in action during the war.


Private Ladd of the 6th Massachusetts was the first Union soldier killed in action during the Civil War.

Five soldiers of the 6th Massachusetts during their second term of service, photo likely taken in camp near Suffolk, Virginia

the 6 Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia
A lithograph depicting a group of militia soldiers surrounded by a large crowd of rioters with firearms and clubs. Projectiles, stones and bricks, fill the air above the soldiers.
During the Baltimore Riot, the 6th Massachusetts became the first Union unit to take casualties in action on April 19, 1861.
April–August 1861
August 1862 – June 1863
July–October 1864
United States
Union Army
Part of
In 1863: 2nd Brigade (Foster’s), 1st Division (Corcoran’s), VII Corps
Col. Edward F. Jones
VII Corps, 1st Division badge
An insignia consisting of a red, upside-down crescent moon surrounding a five pointed red star
In the years immediately preceding the war and during its first enlistment, the regiment consisted primarily of companies from Middlesex County. During its first term of service, four out of ten companies of the regiment were from Lowell, Massachusetts. Colonel Edward F. Jones commanded the regiment during its first term. He later commanded the 26th Massachusetts and was awarded the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general. During its second and third terms of service, the unit was commanded by Colonel Albert S. Follansbee.

The regiment first enlisted for a “90-day” term of service which lasted from April 16 to August 2, 1861. Following their engagement in the Baltimore Riot, the 6th Massachusetts proceeded to Washington and then returned to Baltimore to guard locations within the city as well as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad station at Elkridge, Maryland. Their second term of service lasted nine months from August 1862 to June 1863. During this time the 6th Massachusetts was attached to the VII Corps and participated in several expeditions and actions in the vicinity of Suffolk, Virginia, most notably the Siege of Suffolk and the Battle of Carrsville in April and May 1863. Private Joseph S.G. Sweatt’s bravery at Carrsville earned him the Medal of Honor. The 6th Massachusetts served a third term in response to the call for troops to defend fortifications around Washington. During this term, which lasted 100 days from July to October 1864, the 6th Massachusetts garrisoned Fort C. F. Smith in Arlington, Virginia and guarded Confederate prisoners of war at Fort Delaware near the mouth of the Delaware River.

Earlier units Edit
The 6th Massachusetts regiment that served during the Civil War was formed in 1855 during the reorganization of the Massachusetts militia. Other units dating back to the 18th century were given the designation 6th Regiment Massachusetts Militia.[1] They were formed and disbanded at various times and although they shared the same numerical designation, there was no continuous unit known as the 6th Massachusetts. One of the units designated as the 6th Massachusetts was a regiment that served during King George’s War in the Siege of Louisbourg in 1745.[2] During the Revolutionary War, the 6th Massachusetts Regiment was engaged in the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Battle of Harlem Heights, the Battle of Trenton and the Battle of Saratoga.[3]

90-day term of service Edit
Preparations Edit
A black and white lithograph depicting a long column of soldiers at a large train station preparing to board a train
The 6th Massachusetts en route to Washington, April 18, 1861
Shortly after South Carolina issued its Declaration of Secession, Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew anticipated imminent civil war and issued an order on January 16, 1861, to the ten existing Massachusetts units of peace-time militia to immediately reorganize and prepare for active service.[4] Colonel Edward F. Jones was the first militia commander to respond to the Governor’s order. His letter indicating the regiment’s readiness, dated January 21, was brought to Boston and read in the Massachusetts Senate by then state Senator Benjamin F. Butler.[5]

On April 15, 1861, three days after Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter, President Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteers to serve in putting down the insurrection. The call was relayed by Governor Andrew to the existing regiments of Massachusetts militia the same day. Eight companies of the original 6th Massachusetts (one from Acton, one from Groton, two from Lawrence, and four from Lowell) gathered in Lowell on April 16 and proceeded to Boston.[6] That night, the men of the 6th Massachusetts barracked in Faneuil and Boylston Halls.[7] The next morning, April 17, three companies previously belonging to other Massachusetts militia units (one from Boston, one from Stoneham, and another from Worcester) were added to the 6th Massachusetts to form a regiment of 11 companies total. Thus composed entirely of existing volunteer militia companies, the 6th Massachusetts was made up of volunteer soldiers.[8] The regiment proceed that day to the State House, where Governor Andrew presented regimental colors to Colonel Jones. The 6th Massachusetts departed Boston for Washington via railroad at 7 p.m. on April 17.[9]

Baltimore Riot Edit
A black and white lithograph depicting a formation of militia soldiers with bayonets fixed surrounded by rioters
Mob attacks companies of the 6th Massachusetts Militia on Pratt Street during the Baltimore Riot.
On April 19, 1861, the 6th Massachusetts boarded train cars in Philadelphia in the early morning hours and departed for Washington via Baltimore. Before the end of the day, the regiment saw combat during the Baltimore Riot. The date was the anniversary of the Battles of Lexington and Concord which began the American Revolution. [9]

Although Maryland remained in the Union, secessionist sentiment and support for the Confederacy was widespread in that state. Colonel Jones therefore expected a violent reception in Baltimore. He was also concerned about the possibility of sabotage to the tracks on the way to Baltimore which might cause derailment and potentially large casualties for the 6th Massachusetts. Jones ordered that a pilot locomotive precede the train that transported his regiment. The 6th Massachusetts arrived safely in Baltimore about 10 a.m.[10]

Trains passing through Baltimore at that time could not proceed directly through the city without stopping. Southbound trains were decoupled at President Street Station on the east side of the city. Cars were drawn individually along rails on Pratt Street by horsepower to Camden Station on the west side of Baltimore’s Inner Harbor, where the trains were reassembled. The initial cars encountered little resistance but soon a growing crowd of Baltimore citizens became increasingly agitated by the passing transports filled with troops.[11] The crowd attacked the car carrying Company K with stones and bricks and derailed it by placing obstructions on the tracks. Railroad company workers managed to put the car back on track and Company K was the seventh and last company to reach Camden Station by rail.[12] The crowd barricaded the rails by dumping cartloads of sand and dragging anchors from the nearby docks across them thus preventing further cars from passing.[11]

A sepia toned portrait photograph depicting the head and shoulders of a young man in an elaborate militia uniform. He wears a tall dress uniform hat.
Private Ladd of the 6th Massachusetts was the first Union soldier killed in action during the Civil War.
The blockage of the railroad left four companies, numbering 220 men, at President Street Station with no choice but to march through the city to reach Camden Station, slightly more than one mile away. The size of the crowd obstructing their path was estimated at roughly 10,000.[13] Captain Follansbee, the senior captain, took charge of the detachment. After crossing the Pratt Street Bridge, which had been partially dismantled by the crowd, Follansbee ordered his men to march at the “double-quick.” This roused the crowd further as they perceived the quickened pace as an indication of panic. As well as stones and bricks being thrown, shots were now fired at the 6th Massachusetts from the stores and houses around them. Captain Follansbee gave the order to return fire.[14]

Seventeen-year-old Private Luther C. Ladd, a factory worker from Lowell, was hit in the head by a piece of scrap iron that was thrown from a rooftop and fractured his skull.[15] As he staggered, one of the rioters took Ladd’s musket from him and fired, wounding him in the leg.[16] Ladd died on Pratt Street. He is known as the first Union soldier to be killed in action during the Civil War.[16][17] Three other militiamen were killed during the riot: Private Addison O. Whitney, Private Charles A. Taylor and Corporal Sumner H. Needham. A total of 36 members of the 6th Massachusetts were wounded.[18]

A formation of approximately 50 officers of the Baltimore Police eventually placed themselves between the rioters and the militiamen, allowing the 6th Massachusetts to proceed to Camden Station.[19] The companies boarded the train which quickly got underway for Washington, though the crowd followed the train for some miles attempting to stop it. A total of 12 civilians were killed during the riot and an unknown number were injured.[20]

Garrison duty Edit
The 6th Massachusetts reached Washington D.C. on April 19, 1861, the first unit to arrive in response to Lincoln’s call for troops.[21] A large, cheering crowd welcomed them at the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Station which once stood north of the Capitol. Among the crowd was Clara Barton who became a famed nurse during the Civil War. At the time a clerk in the U.S. Patent Office, Barton gained her first experience in caring for wounded soldiers as she tended to injured men of the 6th Massachusetts.[22]

An antique photograph depicting a city square with a stone monument and a large number of soldiers at rest
The 6th Massachusetts bivouacked in Monument Square in Baltimore on July 1, 1861, at the close of their second garrison encampment in the city.
The 6th Massachusetts was barracked in the Senate Chamber in the Capitol. The next morning, tensions in Washington were high as rumors circulated of an impending Confederate attack. After reviewing the 6th Massachusetts, Lincoln expressed his anxiety to the members of the regiment, telling them, “I don’t believe there is any North. The Seventh Regiment [New York] is a myth. Rhode Island is not known in our geography any longer. You are the only northern realities.”[21][23] The 7th New York arrived the next day, April 21, and other regiments soon followed.

In the days and weeks after the Baltimore Riot, newspapers and politicians across the country drew comparisons between the Massachusetts militia who had fought on April 19, 1775, at the start of the Revolution and the Massachusetts troops who fought on April 19, 1861.[24] Among the 6th Massachusetts were descendants of those Minutemen who had fought in Lexington and Concord in 1775. Due to the coincidence of the date and the ancestry of some members, the 6th Massachusetts was often called the “Minutemen of ’61.”[25]

The 6th Massachusetts remained in Washington until May 5, when they were assigned to garrison a key railroad relay station about 15 miles outside of Baltimore at Elkridge.[26] Their presence there helped keep open the crucial rail line from the northeastern states to Washington.[27] The regiment returned to Baltimore on May 13, when Major General Benjamin F. Butler occupied the city with several Union regiments in anticipation of a Confederate attack on Baltimore which never developed. The 6th Massachusetts marched through the city to Federal Hill, where they set up camp for a short stay of three days. On May 16, the regiment returned to the Elkridge relay station. They served out the majority of their term at the relay station and vicinity, except for a second assignment in Baltimore from June 26 to July 1, 1861.[26]

The regiment’s return to Boston at the close of their 90-day term was delayed slightly by special request of Major General Nathaniel P. Banks. In light of the recent Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run, in which the 6th Massachusetts did not participate, he asked the regiment voluntarily remain at Elkridge another week in the event of a Confederate advance on Washington. On July 29, the 6th Massachusetts received orders to break camp and boarded trains for Boston which was reached on August 1. The regiment was mustered out on August 2, 1861.[26]

9-month term of service Edit
Organization and departure Edit
The regiment was again activated for federal service following Lincoln’s call in August 1862 for 300,000 troops to serve for nine months. Seven of the ten original companies returned for the second period of service. Members who had served during the regiment’s first term were not compelled to reenlist. While many did reenlist, considerable recruiting of new volunteers was necessary in order to fill out the companies and thus the roster during the second term was different than the 90-day term.[28] To complete the regiment, an additional three companies, made up entirely of fresh recruits, were organized. The roster of officers during the nine months term was substantially the same as the 90-day term.[29] Follansbee, who had assumed command of the detached companies engaged in the Baltimore Riot, was promoted to colonel and commanded the regiment during its second term of service. The unit was mustered in at Camp Henry Wilson in Lowell beginning August 31, 1862. The 6th Massachusetts departed Boston on September 9 on board the steamship Plymouth Rock. Arriving in New York, the regiment traveled by rail through Baltimore and on to Washington. The unit received a very different welcome in Baltimore during their second term and were given a large reception with food and drink and much cheering from the citizens of the city.[30][31]

Blackwater River expeditions Edit
A sepia toned photograph of five soldiers standing at parade rest in a neat line
Five soldiers of the 6th Massachusetts during their second term of service, photo likely taken in camp near Suffolk, Virginia
Upon reaching Washington, the regiment was ordered to Fortress Monroe and from there to Suffolk, Virginia. The 6th Massachusetts was assigned to the Second Brigade (commanded by Colonel Robert S. Foster) of the First Division of the VII Corps.[32] They served garrison and picket duty in the vicinity of Suffolk, occasionally taking part in reconnaissance expeditions to the Blackwater River (which represented the boundary between the Union occupied counties of southeast Virginia and Confederate territory of the interior) and engaged in minor skirmish actions.[33]

Their first such expedition took place on October 3, 1862, about two weeks after the regiment reached Suffolk. The 6th Massachusetts formed a peripheral part of the Expedition against Franklin, a joint effort of the U.S. Army and Navy to dislodge a growing force of Confederates threatening the Union garrison at Suffolk. The 6th Massachusetts held a road near Western Branch Church, far from the main action at Franklin, and here loaded their muskets for the first time in action.[34] Although the 6th Massachusetts did not see any combat during their first expedition, and many members recalled it as tedious, the sight of ambulances carrying dead and wounded from the battle made a strong impression on the new recruits.[35] During a second expedition to the Blackwater on December 11, 1862, the 6th Massachusetts was lightly engaged near Zuni, Virginia and lost their first casualty in battle during their second enlistment—2nd Lieutenant Robert G. Barr.[36] The regiment did not again leave Suffolk until an expedition on January 29, 1863, again towards the Blackwater River. Confederates opposed this Union advance on January 30 during the Battle of Deserted House in an isolated location about ten miles west of Suffolk.[37] The 6th Massachusetts was sharply engaged and lost five killed and seven wounded.[38]

Siege of Suffolk Edit
The majority of the regiment’s time, when not on expeditions, was spent in fatigue duty building fortifications around Suffolk. This included digging trenches and clearing trees in front of the defensive lines. The hard labor had a detrimental effect on the general morale of the Union troops stationed at Suffolk.[39] This was exacerbated by antagonistic feelings between the civilians of occupied Suffolk and the enlisted men of the 6th Massachusetts.[40]

In early 1863, Major General James Longstreet was given command of the Confederate Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia. His objectives were to defend Richmond from attack from the southeast, forage for supplies in Union controlled southeastern Virginia and to dislodge the Union garrison at Suffolk. Longstreet began the Siege of Suffolk on April 11, 1863. The 6th Massachusetts occupied a position on the right of the Union defensive siege lines at a location called Fort Nansemond by the bank of the Nansemond River. For 22 days, the regiment engaged in frequent exchanges of fire with opposing forces though no significant assault was made by the Confederates.[37]

On May 3, 1863, Longstreet abandoned the siege and began moving his forces north to rejoin the Army of Northern Virginia. The next day, the 6th Massachusetts was among the units sent in pursuit of the retreating Confederate force. Only minor skirmishing took place as the bulk of the Confederate force had already escaped beyond reach of the Union infantry. The 6th Massachusetts took about 80 Confederate stragglers prisoner and burned every building they came across along the Somerton Road to deny shelter to any additional Confederate stragglers or deserters.[41]

Battle of Carrsville and Medal of Honor recipient Edit
Major General John A. Dix, commanding Union forces at Suffolk, conducted several reconnaissances in force to determine the disposition of Confederate forces remaining in the region. On May 13, the 6th Massachusetts joined another expedition to the Blackwater River. This was the final action of their second term of service. The column was commanded by Major General Foster and Colonel Follansbee was promoted to command of the brigade to which the 6th Massachusetts belonged.[42] A considerable Confederate force attacked the Union expedition in a sharp engagement on May 14–15, 1863, known as the Battle of Carrsville or the Battle of Holland House. During this fight, the 6th Massachusetts supported the 7th Massachusetts Battery and exchanged in heavy, prolonged firing with the Confederates. The 6th Massachusetts made an advance, driving the enemy into the woods, then were driven back and made a second counter-attack, reclaiming their position at the start of the battle. The regiment suffered casualties of five killed or mortally wounded, twelve wounded and five prisoners.[40]

In the middle of the battle, when the 6th Massachusetts was driven back, Private Joseph S.G. Sweatt of Company C perceived that several of his comrades had been hit and were left in the woods. In an effort to pull them out, he rushed forward, towards the Confederate position. In this action, he earned the Medal of Honor. According to his citation, “When ordered to retreat, this soldier turned and rushed back to the front, in the face of heavy fire from the enemy, in an endeavor to rescue his wounded comrades, remaining by them until overpowered and taken prisoner.” Sweatt was eventually released; the three men he endeavored to rescue did not survive.[40]

On May 18, the 6th Massachusetts and other regiments fell back to Deserted House outside of Suffolk. On May 20 they were posted in support of artillery at Windsor, Virginia. Finally, on May 23, the 6th Massachusetts received orders to return to Massachusetts. The regiment reached Boston by steamship on May 26 to be welcomed and addressed in front of the State House by Governor Andrew. The 6th Massachusetts then proceeded to Lowell, where they were received with enthusiastic festivities. The regiment reassembled on June 3, 1863, at Camp Wilson and were mustered out.[43] In all during their second enlistment, the regiment lost 13 men killed or mortally wounded in combat and 18 by disease.[32]

100-day term of service
Ladd and Whitney memorial
Later units
See also
Last edited 4 hours ago by Meters
3rd Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia
5th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia
8th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia
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Idiom of the Day: be more trouble than it’s worth

Idiom of the Day:
be more trouble than it’s worth

To not be important, useful, or beneficial enough to justify the effort or difficulty that something requires. Watch the video…:

This Day in History: Mae West Sentenced For Obscenity (1927)

This Day in History:
Mae West Sentenced For Obscenity (1927)

In 1926, American actress Mae West, mistress of the double entendre, began to write, produce, and star in her own Broadway plays, the first of which was the sensation-creating Sex. The notorious production did not go over well with city officials, who prosecuted West on morals charges. She served eight days of her 10-day sentence, getting off two days for good behavior. Still, the punishment did not deter her from tackling taboo subjects, as evidenced by her next play, named what? More…:

Quote of the Day: Henry David Thoreau

Quote of the Day:
Henry David Thoreau

A very few—as heroes, patriots, martyrs, reformers in the great sense, and men—serve the state with their consciences also, and so necessarily resist it for the most part; and they are commonly treated as enemies by it.


Article of the Day: The Year without a Summer

Article of the Day:
The Year without a Summer

It is now widely thought that the eruption of Indonesia’s Mount Tambora—the largest in over 1,600 years—led to a widespread reduction in temperature in 1816 that destroyed crops and prompted food shortages and famine across the globe. The event became the primary motivation for western expansion in America, and the lack of horse feed inspired research into horseless travel. What novel is said to have been written by an author forced to stay inside by the unseasonable weather in July 1816? More…:

Word of the Day: reaper

Word of the Day:

Definition: (noun) Someone who helps to gather the harvest.
Synonyms: harvester
Usage: He was laying about him lustily with his sheath-knive, lopping the canes right and left, like a reaper, and soon made quite a clearing around us.:

Exclusive – Facebook to put 1.5 billion users out of reach of new EU privacy law


THU APR 19, 2018 / 3:35 AM BST
Exclusive – Facebook to put 1.5 billion users out of reach of new EU privacy law
David Ingram

(Reuters) – If a new European law restricting what companies can do with people’s online data went into effect tomorrow, almost 1.9 billion Facebook Inc (FB.O) users around the world would be protected by it. The online social network is making changes that ensure the number will be much smaller.

Facebook members outside the United States and Canada, whether they know it or not, are currently governed by terms of service agreed with the company’s international headquarters in Ireland.

Next month, Facebook is planning to make that the case for only European users, meaning 1.5 billion members in Africa, Asia, Australia and Latin America will not fall under the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which takes effect on May 25.

The previously unreported move, which Facebook confirmed to Reuters on Tuesday, shows the world’s largest online social network is keen to reduce its exposure to GDPR, which allows European regulators to fine companies for collecting or using personal data without users’ consent.

That removes a huge potential liability for Facebook, as the new EU law allows for fines of up to 4 percent of global annual revenue for infractions, which in Facebook’s case could mean billions of dollars.

The change comes as Facebook is under scrutiny from regulators and lawmakers around the world since disclosing last month that the personal information of millions of users wrongly ended up in the hands of political consultancy Cambridge Analytica, setting off wider concerns about how it handles user data.


The change affects more than 70 percent of Facebook’s 2 billion-plus members. As of December, Facebook had 239 million users in the United States and Canada, 370 million in Europe and 1.52 billion users elsewhere.

Facebook, like many other U.S. technology companies, established an Irish subsidiary in 2008 and took advantage of the country’s low corporate tax rates, routing through it revenue from some advertisers outside North America. The unit is subject to regulations applied by the 28-nation European Union.

Facebook said the latest change does not have tax implications.


In a statement given to Reuters, Facebook played down the importance of the terms of service change, saying it plans to make the privacy controls and settings that Europe will get under GDPR available to the rest of the world.

“We apply the same privacy protections everywhere, regardless of whether your agreement is with Facebook Inc or Facebook Ireland,” the company said.

Earlier this month, Facebook Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg told Reuters in an interview that his company would apply the EU law globally “in spirit,” but stopped short of committing to it as the standard for the social network across the world.

In practise, the change means the 1.5 billion affected users will not be able to file complaints with Ireland’s Data Protection Commissioner or in Irish courts. Instead they will be governed by more lenient U.S. privacy laws, said Michael Veale, a technology policy researcher at University College London.

Facebook will have more leeway in how it handles data about those users, Veale said. Certain types of data such as browsing history, for instance, are considered personal data under EU law but are not as protected in the United States, he said.

The company said its rationale for the change was related to the European Union’s mandated privacy notices, “because EU law requires specific language.” For example, the company said, the new EU law requires specific legal terminology about the legal basis for processing data which does not exist in U.S. law.


Ireland was unaware of the change. One Irish official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said he did not know of any plans by Facebook to transfer responsibilities wholesale to the United States or to decrease Facebook’s presence in Ireland, where the social network is seeking to recruit more than 100 new staff.


Facebook released a revised terms of service in draft form two weeks ago, and they are scheduled to take effect next month.

Other multinational companies are also planning changes. LinkedIn, a unit of Microsoft Corp (MSFT.O), tells users in its existing terms of service that if they are outside the United States, they have a contract with LinkedIn Ireland. New terms that take effect May 8 move non-Europeans to contracts with U.S.-based LinkedIn Corp.

LinkedIn said in a statement on Wednesday that all users are entitled to the same privacy protections. “We’ve simply streamlined the contract location to ensure all members understand the LinkedIn entity responsible for their personal data,” the company said.

(Reporting by David Ingram in San Francisco; Additional reporting by Joseph Menn in San Francisco, Padraic Halpin and Conor Humphries in Dublin and Douglas Busvine in Frankfurt; Editing by Greg Mitchell and Bill Rigby)

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Famous Fantastic Mysteries – Wikipedia

Famous Fantastic Mysteries
Famous Fantastic Mysteries was an American science fiction and fantasy pulp magazine published from 1939 to 1953. The editor was Mary Gnaedinger. It was launched by the Munsey Company as a way to reprint the many science fiction and fantasy stories which had appeared over the preceding decades in Munsey magazines such as Argosy. From its first issue, dated September/October 1939, Famous Fantastic Mysteries was an immediate success. Less than a year later, a companion magazine, Fantastic Novels, was launched.

Famous Fantastic Mysteries

Famous fantastic mysteries

93909-10 v1 n1.jpg
First issue cover, September/October 1939
Mary Gnaedinger
Science fiction, fantasy, pulp
Bimonthly, monthly
Munsey Company
First issue
Final issue
United States
Frequently reprinted authors included George Allan England, A. Merritt, and Austin Hall; the artwork was also a major reason for the success of the magazine, with artists such as Virgil Finlay and Lawrence Stevens contributing some of their best work. In late 1942, Popular Publications acquired the title from Munsey, and Famous Fantastic Mysteries stopped reprinting short stories from the earlier magazines. It continued to reprint longer works, including titles by G. K. Chesterton, H. G. Wells, and H. Rider Haggard. Original short fiction also began to appear, including Arthur C. Clarke’s “Guardian Angel”, which would later form the first section of his novel Childhood’s End. In 1951, the publishers experimented briefly with a large digest format, but returned quickly to the original pulp layout. The magazine ceased publication in 1953, almost at the end of the pulp era.

Publication history
By the early decades of the 20th century, science fiction (sf) stories were frequently seen in popular magazines.[1] The Munsey Company, a major pulp magazine publisher, printed a great deal of science fiction in these years,[1] but it was not until 1926 that Amazing Stories, the first pulp magazine specializing in science fiction appeared.[2] Munsey continued to print sf in Argosy during the 1930s, including stories such as Murray Leinster’s The War of the Purple Gas and Arthur Leo Zagat’s “Tomorrow”, though they owned no magazines that specialized in science fiction.[3] By the end of the 1930s science fiction was a growing market,[2] with several new sf magazines launched in 1939.[4] That year Munsey took advantage of science fiction’s growing popularity by launching Famous Fantastic Mysteries as a vehicle for reprinting the most popular fantasy and sf stories from the Munsey magazines.[5]

The first issue was dated September/October 1939, and was edited by Mary Gnaedinger. The magazine immediately became successful and went to a monthly schedule starting in November 1939. Demand for reprints of old favorites was so strong that Munsey decided to launch an additional magazine, Fantastic Novels, in July 1940.[5] The two magazines were placed on alternating bimonthly schedules,[2] but when Fantastic Novels ceased publication in early 1941 Famous Fantastic Mysteries remained bimonthly until June 1942.[6] Munsey sold Famous Fantastic Mysteries to Popular Publications, a major pulp publisher, at the end of 1942; it appears to have been a sudden decision, since the editorial in the December 1942 issue discusses a planned February issue that never materialized, and mentions forthcoming reprints that did not appear. The first issue from Popular appeared in March 1943, and only two more issues appeared that year; the September 1943 issue marked the beginning of a regular quarterly schedule. It returned to a bimonthly schedule in 1946 which it maintained with only slight deviations until the end of its run.[3]

In 1949, Street & Smith, one of the longest established and most respected publishers, shut down all of their pulp magazines: the pulp era was drawing to a close. Popular Publications was the biggest pulp publisher, which helped their titles last a little longer, but Famous Fantastic Mysteries finally ceased publication in 1953, only a couple of years before the last of the pulps ceased publication.[7]

Contents and reception
Bibliographic details
Ashley, Time Machines, pp. 16–23.
Malcolm Edwards & Peter Nicholls, “SF Magazines”, in Clute & Nicholls, Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, pp. 1066–1068.
Thomas D. Clareson, “Famous Fantastic Mysteries”, in Tymn & Ashley, Science Fiction, Fantasy and Weird Fiction Magazines, pp. 211–216.
Ashley, Time Machines, pp. 237–255.
Ashley, Time Machines, pp. 150–151.
“Famous Fantastic Mysteries”, in Tuck, Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, Vol. 3, pp. 555–556.
Ashley, Time Machines, pp. 220–225.
Day, Index to the Science-Fiction Magazines, pp. 169–170.
Robert Weinberg, “Lawrence Stern Stevens”, in Weinberg, Biographical Dictionary, pp. 260–262.
Robert Weinberg, “Peter Stevens”, in Weinberg, Biographical Dictionary, pp. 262–263.
Ashley, Transformations, p. 386.
“Culture: Famous Fantastic Mysteries: SFE: Science Fiction Encyclopedia”. Gollancz. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
Mike Ashley, “Famous Fantastic Mysteries”, in Clute & Grant, Encyclopedia of Fantasy, p. 334.
Knight, In Search of Wonder, p. 187.
See the individual issues. For convenience, an online index is available at “Series: Famous Fantastic Mysteries — ISFDB”. Al von Ruff. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
Ashley, Time Machines, p. 217.
Ashley, Transformations, p. 304.
John Clute, “Martin H. Greenberg”, in Clute & Nicholls, Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, pp. 522–524.

Today’s Holiday: Parashurama Jayanti

Today’s Holiday:
Parashurama Jayanti

According to Hindu mythology, it was Parashurama (Rama with an Ax) who destroyed the evil Kshatriya kings and princes 21 times. His birthday, Parashurama Jayanti, is therefore observed with fasting, austerities, and prayer. It is also a day to worship Lord Vishnu, of whom Parashurama is believed to be the sixth incarnation. To Hindus, Parashurama represents filial obedience, austerity, power, and brahmanic ideals. The Malabar region on the southwest coast of India is believed to have been founded by Parashurama. More…:

Today’s Birthday: James McCune Smith (1813)

Today’s Birthday:
James McCune Smith (1813)

Smith was the first African American to obtain a medical degree and operate a pharmacy in the US. Denied admission to American colleges due to racial discrimination, he studied in Scotland, obtaining a series of degrees. After returning to New York, he became the first professionally trained black physician in the country. He wrote forcefully against common misconceptions and false notions about race, science, and medicine and once used statistics to refute what argument about slaves? More…:

This Day in History: Paul Revere’s Midnight Ride (1775)

This Day in History:
Paul Revere’s Midnight Ride (1775)

American patriot Paul Revere was a member of the Sons of Liberty and a participant in the Boston Tea Party, but he is chiefly remembered for his late-night horseback ride to warn the Massachusetts colonists that British soldiers were setting forth on the mission that, as it turned out, began the American Revolution. Two others also rode out with the news, but it is Revere who is celebrated as the midnight rider, despite having been captured before reaching his final destination. Why is this? More…:

Quote of the Day: Ralph Waldo Emerson

Quote of the Day:
Ralph Waldo Emerson

The years teach much which the days never know.


Article of the Day: Catch-22

Article of the Day:

Catch-22 is a term coined by Joseph Heller in his novel of the same name to describe a situation in which a desired outcome is impossible to attain. Heller’s prototypical Catch-22 concerns the sanity of military pilots. Basically, since combat missions are so dangerous, those who fly them must be insane and should be grounded. Asking to be grounded, however, shows concern for one’s own wellbeing and demonstrates a pilot’s sanity. He must therefore continue to fly. What are other examples? More…:

Idiom of the Day: have more than one string to (one’s) bow

Idiom of the Day:
have more than one string to (one’s) bow

To have multiple viable options or alternatives available in the event that the current course of action, circumstance, opportunity, etc., does not work out. Watch the video…:

Word of the Day: judder

Word of the Day:

Definition: (verb) Shake or vibrate rapidly and intensively.
Synonyms: shake
Usage: The old engine was juddering and smoking, so I took the car to the mechanic.:

Watch “I Don’t Want To Talk About It (from One Night Only! Rod Stewart Live at Royal Albert Hall)” on YouTube

Watch “Scorpions – We Built This House” on YouTube

Watch “Ronnie Milsap – She Keeps The Home Fires Burning with Lyrics” on YouTube

Crack of dawn I hit the road, set my shoulders for the heavy load
Coffee leaking through the paper sack
The foreman says I’m late again, he can’t stand it when I only grin
He’s got me eight hours, she’s got me after that
I can’t wait ’til it’s quittin’ time
She got something cookin’ for me tonight
She keeps the home fires burning
While I’m out earning a living in a world
That’s known for its pouring rain
She keeps the home fires burning
Ooh and it’s her warm loving that keeps me returning again
And again
Out of gas, just my luck, four bald tires on my pickup truck
No more credit on my credit card
When I come home and hit that door
I remember what these aching arms are for
She’s my one light when the world goes dark
Tomorrow it’s the same old grind
But she’ll be burning in my mind
She keeps the home fires burning
While I’m out earning a living in a world
That’s known for its pouring rain
She keeps the home fires burning
Ooh and it’s her warm loving that keeps me returning again
She keeps the home fires burning
Ooh and it’s her warm loving that keeps me returning again
Home fires burning
While I’m out earning a living in a world
She keeps the home fires burning
Ooh and it’s her warm loving that keeps me returning again
She keeps the home fires burning
While I’m out earning a living in a world
That’s known for its pouring rain.

Songwriters: Michael Barry Reid / Don Pfrimmer / Dennis Morgan
She Keeps the Home Fires Burning lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group

Watch “Does He Love You by Reba McEntire & Linda Davis Lyrics” on YouTube

Reba McEntire

Reba Nell McEntire (born March 28, 1955)

Reba Nell McEntire (born March 28, 1955)

Reba Nell McEntire (born March 28, 1955) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and record producer. She began her career in the music industry as a high school student singing in the Kiowa High School band, on local radio shows with her siblings, and at rodeos. While a sophomore in college, she performed the National Anthem at the National Rodeo in Oklahoma City and caught the attention of country artist Red Steagall who brought her to Nashville, Tennessee. She signed a contract with Mercury Records a year later in 1975. She released her first solo album in 1977 and released five additional studio albums under the label until 1983.

This article is about the musician and actress. For her self-titled album, see Reba McEntire (album).
Quick facts: Spouse(s), Website …
Reba McEntire

Reba McEntire at the 60th Annual Grammy Awards, January 2018
Born Reba Nell McEntire
March 28, 1955 (age 63)
McAlester, Oklahoma, U.S.
Education Kiowa High School
Alma mater Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Singersongwriteractressrecord producer
Years active 1975–present
Charlie Battles
(m. 1976; div. 1987)
Narvel Blackstock
(m. 1989; div. 2015)
Children Shelby Blackstock
Musical career
Genres Country
Instruments Vocals
MercuryMCA NashvilleStarstruckValoryNash Icon
Associated acts
Red SteagallPake McEntireSusie McEntireBrooks & DunnKelly ClarksonLinda Davis
Signing with MCA Nashville Records, McEntire took creative control over her second MCA album, My Kind of Country (1984), which had a more traditional country sound and produced two number one singles: “How Blue” and “Somebody Should Leave”. The album brought her breakthrough success, bringing her a series of successful albums and number one singles in the 1980s and 1990s. McEntire has since released 29 studio albums, acquired 40 number one singles, 16 number one albums, and 28 albums have been certified gold, platinum or multi-platinum in sales by the Recording Industry Association of America. She has sometimes been referred to as “The Queen of Country”. and she is one of the best-selling artists of all time, having sold more than 80 million records worldwide.

In the early 1990s, McEntire branched into film starting with 1990’s Tremors. She has since starred in the Broadway revival of Annie Get Your Gun and in her television sitcom, Reba (2001–07) for which she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Television Series–Musical or Comedy.

Early life
Reba Nell McEntire was born March 28, 1955, in McAlester, Oklahoma, to Jacqueline (née Smith; born November 6, 1926) and Clark Vincent McEntire (November 30, 1927 – October 23, 2014).

Her father, and her grandfather, John Wesley McEntire (February 19, 1897 – February 13, 1976), were both champion steer ropers and her father was a World Champion Steer Roper three times (1957, 1958, and 1961). John McEntire was the son of Clark Stephen McEntire (September 10, 1855 – August 15, 1935) and Helen Florida McEntire (née Brown; May 19, 1868 – May 16, 1947). Her mother had once wanted to be a country-music artist but eventually decided to become a schoolteacher, but she did teach her children how to sing. Reba reportedly taught herself how to play the guitar. On car rides home from their father’s rodeo shows, the McEntire siblings learned songs and harmonies from their mother, eventually forming a vocal group called the “Singing McEntires” with her brother, Pake, and her younger sister Susie (her older sister Alice did not participate). Reba played guitar in the group and wrote all the songs. The group sang at rodeos and recorded “The Ballad of John McEntire” together. Released on the indie label Boss, the song pressed one thousand copies.

In 1974, McEntire attended Southeastern Oklahoma State University planning to be an elementary school teacher (eventually graduating December 16, 1976). While not attending school, she also continued to sing locally. That same year she was hired to perform the national anthem at the National Rodeo in Oklahoma City. Country artist Red Steagall, who was also performing that day, was impressed by her vocal ability and agreed to help her launch a country-music career in Nashville, Tennessee. After recording a demo tape, she signed a recording contract with Mercury Records in 1975.

Music career
1976–83: Career launch at Mercury
McEntire made her first recordings for Mercury on January 22, 1976, when she released her debut single. Upon its release that year, “I Don’t Want to Be a One Night Stand” failed to become a major hit on the Billboard country music chart, peaking at number 88 in May. She completed her second recording session September 16, which included the production of her second single, “(There’s Nothing Like The Love) Between a Woman and Man”, which reached only number 86 in March 1977. She recorded a third single that April, “Glad I Waited Just for You”, which reached number 88 by August. That same month, Mercury issued her self-titled debut album. The album was a departure from any of McEntire’s future releases, as it resembled the material of Tanya Tucker and Tammy Wynette, according to AllMusic reviewer Greg Adams. The album itself did not chart the Billboard Top Country Albums chart upon its release. After releasing two singles with Jacky Ward (“Three Sheets in the Wind” b/w “I’d Really Love to See You Tonight”; and “That Makes Two of Us” at No. 20 and No. 26, respectively), Mercury issued her second studio album in 1979, Out of a Dream. The album’s cover of Patsy Cline’s “Sweet Dreams” became McEntire’s first Top 20 hit, reaching No. 19 on the Billboard country chart in November 1979.

In 1980, “You Lift Me Up (To Heaven)” brought her to the Top 10 for the first time. Her third studio album, Feel the Fire was released in October and spawned two additional Top 20 hit singles that year. In September 1981, McEntire’s fourth album, Heart to Heart was issued and became her first album to chart the Billboard Top Country Albums list, peaking at No. 2. Its lead single, “Today All Over Again” became a top five country hit. The album received mainly negative reviews from critics. William Ruhlmann of AllMusic gave it two-and-a-half out of five stars, stating she did not get creative control of her music. Ruhlmann called “There Ain’t No Love” “essentially a soft pop ballad”. Most of the album’s material consisted of mainly country pop-styled ballads, which was not well liked by McEntire herself. Her fifth album, Unlimited was issued in June 1982, and spawned her first Billboard number one single in early 1983: “Can’t Even Get the Blues” and “You’re the First Time I’ve Thought About Leaving”. The following year her sixth album, Behind the Scene was released and was positively received by music critics. In 1983, McEntire announced her departure from Mercury, criticizing the label’s country pop production styles.

1984–90: Breakthrough
McEntire signed with MCA Nashville Records in 1984 and released her seventh studio album, Just a Little Love. Harold Shedd was originally the album’s producer; however, McEntire rejected his suggestions towards country pop arrangements. It was instead produced by Norro Wilson, although the album still had a distinguishable country pop sound. Dissatisfied with the album’s sound, she went to MCA president, Jimmy Bowen, who told McEntire to find material that was best-suited to her liking. Instead of finding new material, she found previously recorded country hits from her own record collection, which was then recorded for the album. The album’s material included songs originally released as singles by Ray Price (“Don’t You Believe Her”, “I Want to Hear It from You”), Carl Smith (“Before I Met You”), Faron Young (“He’s Only Everything”) and Connie Smith (“You’ve Got Me [Right Where You Want Me”]). The album spawned two number-one singles: “How Blue” and “Somebody Should Leave”. It was given positive reviews from critics, with Billboard praising McEntire as “the finest woman country singer since Kitty Wells” and Rolling Stone critics honoring her as one of their Top 5 favorite country artists. Upon its release, My Kind of Country became her highest-peaking album on the Top Country Albums chart, reaching No. 13. The album also included instruments such as a fiddle and pedal steel guitar, and was aimed more towards a traditional country sound. McEntire was later praised as a “new traditionalist”, along with Ricky Skaggs, George Strait, and Randy Travis. That year, she won the Country Music Association Awards’ Female Vocalist of the Year, her first major industry award. The album was certified Gold.

In 1985, McEntire released her third MCA album, Have I Got a Deal for You, which followed the same traditional format as My Kind of Country. It was the first album produced by McEntire and was co-produced with Jimmy Bowen. Like her previous release, the album received positive feedback, including Rolling Stone, which called it a “promising debut”. The album’s second single, “Only in My Mind” was entirely written by McEntire and reached No. 5 on the Billboard country chart. On January 17, 1986, McEntire became a member of the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee, and has been a member ever since. In February 1986, McEntire’s ninth studio album, Whoever’s in New England was released. For this album, McEntire and co-producer Jimmy Bowen incorporated her traditional music style into a mainstream sound that was entirely different from anything she had previously recorded. Country Music: The Rough Guide called the production of the title track, “bigger and sentimentalism more obvious, even manipulative”. The title track peaked at No. 1 on the Billboard Country Chart and won her a Grammy Award for Best Female Country Vocal Performance the following year. In addition, the album became McEntire’s first release to certify gold in sales by the Recording Industry Association of America (and was later certified Platinum). At the end of the year, McEntire won Entertainer of the Year from the Country Music Association, the highest honor in the awards show.

McEntire in Washington, D.C., November 2000
McEntire released a second album in 1986 (her tenth overall), What Am I Gonna Do About You. Allmusic critic William Ruhlmann was not overly pleased with album’s production, saying that it lacked the features that had been set forth on Whoever’s in New England. Rulhlmann criticized the title track for “something of the feel of ‘Whoever’s in New England’ in its portrayal of a woman trying to recover from a painfully ended love affair”. The title track was the lead single from the release and became a number-one single shortly after its release. This album also spawned a second number-one in “One Promise Too Late”. The following year, her first MCA compilation, Greatest Hits was released and became her first album to be certified platinum in sales, eventually certifying triple-platinum. A twelfth studio album, The Last One to Know, was released in 1987. The emotions of her divorce from husband, Charlie Battles, were put into the album’s material, according to McEntire. The title track from the release was a number-one single in 1987 and the second single, “Love Will Find Its Way to You”, also reached the top spot. In late 1987, McEntire released her first Christmas collection, Merry Christmas to You, which sold two million copies in the United States, certifying double Platinum. The album included cover versions of “Away in a Manger”, “Silent Night”, and Grandpa Jones’s “The Christmas Guest”.

Her thirteenth album, Reba, was issued in 1988 and was not well received by critics, who claimed she was moving farther away from her “traditional country” sound. Stereo Review disliked the album’s contemporary style, stating, “After years of insisting that she’d stick to hard-core country ‘because I have tried the contemporary-type songs, and it’s not Reba McEntire—it’s just not honest’, McEntire…has gone whole-hog pop. The album peaked at No. 1 on the Top Country Albums chart and remained there for six consecutive weeks. Okay, so maybe that’s not so terrible.” Although it was reviewed poorly, the album itself was certified platinum in sales and produced two number-one singles: “I Know How He Feels” and “New Fool at an Old Game”. In addition, the release’s cover version of Jo Stafford’s “A Sunday Kind of Love” became a Top 5 hit on the Billboard country music chart. Also in 1988, McEntire founded Starstruck Entertainment, which controlled her management, booking, publishing, promotion, publicity, accounting, ticket sales, and fan club administration. The company would eventually expand into managing a horse farm, jet charter service, trucking, construction, and book publishing.

Today’s Holiday: Syria National Day

Today’s Holiday:
Syria National Day

This national holiday commemorates the withdrawal of French troops on this day in 1946, when Syria proclaimed its independence after more than 20 years of French occupation. It is also known as Independence Day and Evacuation Day. More…:

Today’s Birthday: Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1916)

Today’s Birthday:
Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1916)

Bandaranaike’s husband became prime minister of Ceylon in 1956 and was assassinated three years later. In the election that followed, Bandaranaike’s party was victorious—making her the world’s first female prime minister. She headed two coalition governments and served again as prime minister when she was appointed by her daughter, Chandrika Kumaratunga, who was elected president in 1994. While in office, Bandaranaike promoted a new constitution that changed the country’s name to what? More…:

This Day in History: Ford Mustang Debuts at New York World’s Fair (1964)

This Day in History:
Ford Mustang Debuts at New York World’s Fair (1964)

Introduced at a relatively affordable $2,368, the Ford Mustang took the American auto market by storm. The initial sales projection of 100,000 units in the first year was surpassed within months, and a record 418,000 were on the road within the year. That year, the Mustang was featured in the James Bond film Goldfinger and appeared as the pace car at the Indianapolis 500, helping secure its iconic status. The original pony car, the very first Mustang model has what unusual designation? More…:

Quote of the Day: Francis Bacon

Quote of the Day:
Francis Bacon

Boldness is ever blind; for it seeth not danger, and inconveniences.


Article of the Day: The Percy-Neville Feud

Article of the Day:
The Percy-Neville Feud

The Percy-Neville Feud was a string of skirmishes between two prominent northern English families and their followers that helped provoke the Wars of the Roses—a series of dynastic civil wars between supporters of the Houses of Lancaster and York in the 15th century. Six months after the Nevilles allied themselves with Richard, Duke of York—rival of the Lancastrian King Henry VI—the Percys met the Nevilles and the Duke in the first battle at St. Albans. What was the original reason for the feud? More…:

Idiom of the Day: more sinned against than sinner

Idiom of the Day:
more sinned against than sinner

Less guilty or worthy of blame than others, especially those who have injured or laid such blame or guilt upon one. Watch the video…:

Word of the Day: imperil

Word of the Day:

Definition: (verb) Pose a threat to; present a danger to.
Synonyms: endanger, jeopardize, menace, threaten
Usage: You imperil the lives of other road users by driving drunk.:

Watch “Jean-Joseph Mouret: Rondeau from Suite de Symphonies (Trumpet and Orchestra)” on YouTube

Today’s Holiday: Sechseläuten

Today’s Holiday:

This colorful springtime festival in Zurich, Switzerland, ushers in spring by exploding the Böögg (“snowman”), the symbol of winter. Sechseläuten means the “six-o’clock ringing.” On Monday, members of the guilds parade through the city in medieval costumes, accompanied by bands. Everyone converges at six that evening; the bells ring, groups on horseback gallop around the Böögg (which is stuffed with cotton wadding and firecrackers) to the music of a hunting march, and then the Böögg explodes and burns. Torchlight parades go on into the night, and feasts are held at guild halls. More…:

Today’s Birthday: Sir John Franklin (1786)

Today’s Birthday:
Sir John Franklin (1786)

Franklin was a British Royal Navy officer and Arctic explorer who also served as governor of Tasmania. He is best remembered for presiding over a doomed expedition in the 1840s to chart the Northwest Passage through the Canadian Arctic. He and his crew fell prey to a host of ills, including starvation, disease, and lead poisoning. Of the entire expedition of nearly 130 men, not one is known to have survived. What evidence suggests that some of the crew members may have resorted to cannibalism? More…:

This Day in History: Chinese Submarine Suffers Mysterious Accident that Kills 70 (2003)

This Day in History:
Chinese Submarine Suffers Mysterious Accident that Kills 70 (2003)

A week and a half after a mysterious event left the entire 70-man crew of the Chinese Ming-class submarine No. 361 dead at their posts, the stricken vessel was spotted by fishermen and towed to shore. The official explanation for the disaster is that the crew suffocated when diesel engines failed to shut down while the vessel was submerged. What had allowed the crippled submarine to drift for over a week without raising concern? More…:

Quote of the Day: George Eliot

Quote of the Day:
George Eliot

How is it that the poets have said so many fine things about our first love, so few about our later love? Are their first poems their best? Or are not those the best which come from their fuller thought, their larger experience, their deeper-rooted affections?


Article of the Day: Exquisite Corpse

Article of the Day:
Exquisite Corpse

Exquisite corpse is an exercise in which a collection of words or images is assembled by several participants, each of whom adds to a composition by either following a predetermined sequence—such as adjective-noun-adverb-verb-article-adjective-noun—or by looking at the end of the previous entry. The name of the game is derived from the phrase that French Surrealists created when they first played it in 1925: “Le cadavre exquis boira le vin nouveau,” which means what? More…:

Idiom of the Day: more haste, less speed

Idiom of the Day:
more haste, less speed

Acting too quickly and without due dilligence, focus, and attention to detail will result in avoidable mistakes and thus require even more time to complete the task satisfactorily. (The logic of the phrase is essentially “too much haste results in less overall speed.”) Primarily heard in UK. Watch the video…:

Word of the Day: waffle

Word of the Day:

Definition: (verb) Pause or hold back in uncertainty or unwillingness.
Synonyms: hesitate, waver
Usage: The mayoral candidate waffled on his position regarding abortion and gay rights.:

List of canonically crowned images

“List of canonically crowned images” on @Wikipedia:

Watch “Dr. Zuhdi Jasser: A longer strategy still needed for Syria” on YouTube

Watch “JAPAN GEOGRAPHIC 4K 岐阜 春の高山祭(昼) Takayama matsuri (spring,daytime),Gifu” on YouTube

Watch “St John Lateran Basilica Rome.” on YouTube

Archbasilica of St. John Lateran: from Wikipedia (visit site for a beautiful gallery of images related to this basilica)

The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. John Lateran was completed by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 after winning a competition for the design. By Howard Hudson

The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. John Lateran was completed by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 after winning a competition for the design. By Howard Hudson

The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Italian: Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) – also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St. John [in] Lateran, St. John Lateran, or the Lateran Basilica – is the cathedral church of Rome, Italy and therefore houses the cathedra, or ecclesiastical seat, of the Bishop of Rome (Pope).

Quick facts: Length, Width …
It is the oldest and highest ranking of the four papal major basilicas, giving it the unique title of “archbasilica”. Because it is the oldest public church in the city of Rome, and houses the cathedra of the Roman bishop, it has the title of ecumenical mother church of the Catholic faithful.

The current archpriest is Angelo De Donatis, Vicar General for the Diocese of Rome. The President of the French Republic, currently Emmanuel Macron, is ex officio the “first and only honorary canon” of the archbasilica, a title that the heads of state of France have possessed since King Henry IV.

The large Latin inscription on the façade reads: Clemens XII Pont Max Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang; which is a highly abbreviated inscription which translates to: “Pope Clement XII, in the fifth year [of his Pontificate, dedicated this building] to Christ the Savior, in honor of Saints John the Baptist and [John] the Evangelist”. The inscription indicates, along with its full title (see below), that the archbasilica was originally dedicated to Christ the Savior and, centuries later, co-dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. As the Cathedral of the Pope qua Bishop of Rome, it ranks superior to all other churches of the Roman Catholic Church, including St. Peter’s Basilica, and therefore it alone is titled “Archbasilica” among all other basilicas.

The archbasilica is sited in the City of Rome, outside and distanced from Vatican City proper, which is approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to its northwest, although the archbasilica and its adjoining edifices have extraterritorial status from Italy as one of the properties of the Holy See, subject to the sovereignty of the latter, pursuant to the Lateran Treaty of 1929 with Italy under Benito Mussolini.


Next to the formal entrance is the archbasilica’s claim to be the head, or Mother Church, of the entire world. Note the laurel wreath and the Papal tiara.
The archbasilica’s Latin name is Archibasilica Sanctissimi Salvatoris ac Sancti Ioannis Baptistae et Ioannis Evangelistae ad Lateranum, which in English is the Archbasilica of the Most Holy Savior and Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist at the Lateran, and in Italian Arcibasilica [Papale] del Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano.

Lateran Palace
Main article: Lateran Palace
The archbasilica stands over the remains of the Castra Nova equitum singularium, the “New Fort of the Roman imperial cavalry bodyguards”. The fort was established by Septimius Severus in AD 193. Following the victory of Emperor Constantine I over Maxentius (for whom the Equites singulares augusti, the emperor’s mounted bodyguards had fought) at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, the guard was abolished and the fort demolished. Substantial remains of the fort lie directly beneath the nave.

The remainder of the site was occupied during the early Roman Empire by the palace of the gens Laterani. Sextius Lateranus was the first plebeian to attain the rank of consul, and the Laterani served as administrators for several emperors. One of the Laterani, Consul-designate Plautius Lateranus, became famous for being accused by Nero of conspiracy against the Emperor. The accusation resulted in the confiscation and redistribution of his properties.

The Lateran Palace fell into the hands of the Emperor when Constantine I married his second wife Fausta, sister of Maxentius. Known by that time as the “Domus Faustae” or “House of Fausta,” the Lateran Palace was eventually given to the Bishop of Rome by Constantine I. The actual date of the donation is unknown, but scholars speculate that it was during the pontificate of Pope Miltiades, in time to host a synod of bishops in 313 that was convened to challenge the Donatist schism, declaring Donatism to be heresy. The palace basilica was converted and extended, becoming the residence of Pope St. Silvester I, eventually becoming the Cathedral of Rome, the seat of the Popes qua the Bishops of Rome.

The Middle Ages

The papal cathedra, the presence of which renders the archbasilica the cathedral of Rome, is located in its apse. The decorations are in cosmatesque style.

The high altar and the 14th-century Gothic ciborium. The relic of the original wooden altar used by St. Peter comprises the high altar. Above the ciborium are the appearances of Sts. Peter and Paul.
Pope Sylvester I presided over the official dedication of the archbasilica and the adjacent Lateran Palace in 324, declaring both to be a “Domus Dei” (“House of God”). The papal cathedra was placed in its interior, rendering it the cathedral of the Pope qua Bishop of Rome. On the archbasilica’s front wall between the main portals is a plaque inscribed with the words “Sacrosancta Lateranensis ecclesia omnium urbis et orbis ecclesiarum mater et caput”, which translate to “Most Holy Lateran Church, of all the churches in the City and the world, the mother and head”; a visible indication of the archbasilica’s claim to be the “mother church” of all the world.

The archbasilica and Lateran Palace were re-dedicated twice. Pope Sergius III dedicated them to St. John the Baptist in the 10th century in honor of the newly consecrated baptistry of the archbasilica. Pope Lucius II dedicated them to St. John the Evangelist in the 12th century. Thus, St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist are co-patrons of the archbasilica, while the primary Patron is Christ the Savior, as the inscription in the entrance indicates and as is traditional for patriarchal cathedrals. Consequently, the archbasilica remains dedicated to the Savior, and its titular feast is the Feast of the Transfiguration. The archbasilica became the most important shrine of the two St. Johns, albeit infrequently jointly venerated. In later years, a Benedictine monastery was established in the Lateran Palace, and was devoted to serving the archbasilica and the two saints.

Every pope, beginning with Pope Miltiades, occupied the Lateran Palace until the reign of the French Pope Clement V, who in 1309 transferred the seat of the Papacy to Avignon, a Papal fiefdom that was an enclave in France. The Lateran Palace has also been the site of five ecumenical councils (see Lateran Councils).

Lateran fires
During the time the papacy was seated in Avignon, France, the Lateran Palace and the archbasilica deteriorated. Two fires ravaged them in 1307 and 1361. After both fires the pope sent money from Avignon to pay for their reconstruction and maintenance. Nonetheless, the archbasilica and Lateran Palace lost their former splendor.

When the papacy returned from Avignon and the pope again resided in Rome, the archbasilica and the Lateran Palace were deemed inadequate considering their accumulated damage. The popes resided at the Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere and later at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. Eventually, the Palace of the Vatican was built adjacent to the Basilica of St. Peter, which existed since the time of Emperor Constantine I, and the popes began to reside there. It has remained the official residence of the pope (though Pope Francis unofficially resides elsewhere in the Vatican City).

There were several attempts at reconstruction of the archbasilica before a definitive program of Pope Sixtus V. Sixtus V hired his favorite architect, Domenico Fontana, to supervise much of the project. The original Lateran Palace was demolished and replaced with a new edifice. On the square in front of the Lateran Palace is the largest standing obelisk in the world, known as the Lateran Obelisk. It weighs an estimated 455 tons. It was commissioned by the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III and erected by Thutmose IV before the great Karnak temple of Thebes, Egypt. Intended by Emperor Constantine I to be shipped to Constantinople, the very preoccupied Constantius II had it shipped instead to Rome, where it was erected in the Circus Maximus in AD 357. At some time it broke and was buried under the Circus. In the 16th century it was discovered and excavated, and Sixtus V had it re-erected on a new pedestal on 3 August 1588 at its present site.

Further renovation of the interior of the archbasilica, ensued under the direction of Francesco Borromini, commissioned by Pope Innocent X. The twelve niches created by his architectural scheme were eventually filled in 1718 with statues of the Apostles, sculpted by the most prominent Roman Rococo sculptors.

Main body of the basilica, after the radical transformation by Francesco Borromini.
The vision of Pope Clement XII for reconstruction was an ambitious one in which he launched a competition to design a new façade. More than 23 architects competed, mostly working in the then-current Baroque idiom. The putatively impartial jury was chaired by Sebastiano Conca, president of the Roman Academy of Saint Luke. The winner of the competition was Alessandro Galilei.

The façade as it appears today was completed in 1735. It reads in Latin: Clemens XII Pont Max Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang; this highly abbreviated inscription is expanded thus: Clemens XII, Pont[ifex] Max[imus], [in] Anno V, [dedicavit hoc aedificium] Christo Salvatori, in hon[orem] [sanctorum] Ioan[is] Bapt[tistae] et Evang[elistae]. This translates as “Pope Clement XII, in the fifth year of his reign, dedicated this building to Christ the Savior, in honor of Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist”. Galilei’s façade removed all vestiges of traditional, ancient, basilical architecture and imparted a neo-classical facade.



The Lateran Obelisk in its third location, in front of the Lateran Palace.

The Loggia delle Benedizioni, on the rear left side. Annexed, on the left, is the Lateran Palace.
World War II
During the Second World War, the Lateran and its related buildings were used under Pope Pius XII as a safe haven from the Nazis and Italian Fascists for numbers of Jews and other refugees. Among those who found shelter there were Meuccio Ruini, Alcide De Gasperi, Pietro Nenni and others. The Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul and the sixty orphan refugees they cared for were ordered to leave their convent on the Via Carlo Emanuele. The Sisters of Maria Bambina, who staffed the kitchen at the Pontifical Major Roman Seminary at the Lateran offered a wing of their convent. The grounds also housed Italian soldiers.

Vincenzo Fagiolo and Pietro Palazzini, vice-rector of the seminary, were recognized by Yad Vashem for their efforts to assist Jews.

Architectural history
An apse lined with mosaics and open to the air still preserves the memory of one of the most famous halls of the ancient palace, the “Triclinium” of Pope Leo III, which was the state banqueting hall. The existing structure is not ancient, but some portions of the original mosaics may have been preserved in the tripartite mosaic of its niche. In the center Christ gives to the Apostles their mission; on the left He gives the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven to Pope St. Sylvester and the Labarum to Emperor Constantine I; and on the right St. Peter gives the Papal stole to Pope Leo III and the standard to Charlemagne.

Holy Door at the Lateran Papal Basilica
Some few remains of the original buildings may still be traced in the city walls outside the Gate of St. John, and a large wall decorated with paintings was uncovered in the 18th century within the archbasilica behind the Lancellotti Chapel. A few traces of older buildings were also revealed during the excavations of 1880, when the work of extending the apse was in progress, but nothing of importance was published.

A great many donations from the Popes and other benefactors to the archbasilica are recorded in the Liber Pontificalis, and its splendor at an early period was such that it became known as the “Basilica Aurea”, or “Golden Basilica”. This splendor drew upon it the attack of the Vandals, who stripped it of all its treasures. Pope Leo I restored it around AD 460, and it was again restored by Pope Hadrian.

In 897, it was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake: ab altari usque ad portas cecidit (“it collapsed from the altar to the doors”). The damage was so extensive that it was difficult to trace the lines of the old building, but these were mostly respected and the new building was of the same dimensions as the old. This second basilica stood for 400 years before it burned in 1308. It was rebuilt by Pope Clement V and Pope John XXII. It burned once more in 1360, and was rebuilt by Pope Urban V.

Through vicissitudes the archbasilica retained its ancient form, being divided by rows of columns into aisles, and having in front a peristyle surrounded by colonnades with a fountain in the middle, the conventional Late Antique format that was also followed by the old St. Peter’s Basilica. The façade had three windows and was embellished with a mosaic representing Christ as the Savior of the world.

The porticoes were frescoed, probably not earlier than the 12th century, commemorating the Roman fleet under Vespasian, the taking of Jerusalem, the Baptism of Emperor Constantine I and his “Donation” of the Papal States to the Catholic Church. Inside the archbasilica the columns no doubt ran, as in all other basilicas of the same date, the whole length of the church, from east to west.

In one of the rebuildings, probably that which was carried out by Pope Clement V, a transverse nave was introduced, imitated no doubt from the one which had been added, long before this, to the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls. Probably at this time the archbasilica was enlarged.

Some portions of the older buildings survive. Among them the pavement of medieval Cosmatesque work, and the statues of St. Peter and St. Paul, now in the cloister. The graceful ciborium over the high altar, which looks out of place in its present surroundings, dates from 1369. The stercoraria, or throne of red marble on which the Popes sat, is now in the Vatican Museums. It owes its unsavory name to the anthem sung at previous Papal coronations, “De stercore erigens pauperem” (“lifting up the poor out of the dunghill”, from Psalm 112).

From the 5th century, there were seven oratories surrounding the archbasilica. These before long were incorporated into the church. The devotion of visiting these oratories, which was maintained through the Mediaeval Ages, gave rise to the similar devotion of the seven altars, still common in many churches of Rome and elsewhere.

Of the façade by Alessandro Galilei (1735), the cliché assessment has ever been that it is the façade of a palace, not of a church. Galilei’s front, which is a screen across the older front creating a narthex or vestibule, does express the nave and double aisles of the archbasilica, which required a central bay wider than the rest of the sequence. Galilei provided it, without abandoning the range of identical arch-headed openings, by extending the central window by flanking columns that support the arch, in the familiar Serlian motif.

By bringing the central bay forward very slightly, and capping it with a pediment that breaks into the roof balustrade, Galilei provided an entrance doorway on a more than colossal scale, framed in the paired colossal Corinthian pilasters that tie together the façade in the manner introduced at Michelangelo’s palace on the Campidoglio.

Statues of the Apostles
The twelve niches created in Francesco Borromini’s architecture were left vacant for decades. When in 1702 Pope Clement XI and Benedetto Cardinal Pamphili, archpriests of the archbasilica, announced their grand scheme for twelve larger-than-life sculptures of the Apostles to fill the niches, the commission was opened to all the premier sculptors of late Baroque Rome. Each statue was to be sponsored by an illustrious prince with the Pope himself sponsoring that of St. Peter and Cardinal Pamphili that of St. John the Evangelist. Most of the sculptors were given a sketch drawn by Pope Clement’s favorite painter, Carlo Maratta, to which they were to adhere, but with the notable exception being Pierre Le Gros the Younger, who successfully refused to sculpt to Maratta’s design and consequently was not given a sketch.

The sculptors and their sculptures follow and are dated according to Conforti:

Pierre-Étienne Monnot
St. Paul (1704–08)
St. Peter (1704–11)
Francesco Moratti
St. Simon (1704–09)
Lorenzo Ottoni
St. Jude Thaddeus (1704–09)
Giuseppe Mazzuoli
St. Philip (1705–11)
Pierre Le Gros
St. Thomas (1705–11)
St. Bartholomew (c. 1705–12)
Angelo de’ Rossi
St. James the Lesser (1705–11)
Camillo Rusconi
St. Andrew (1705–09)
St. John (1705–11)
St. Matthew (1711–15)
St. James the Greater (1715–18)

St. Peter
by Monnot

St. Paul
by Monnot

St. Bartholomew
by Le Gros

St. James the Greater by Rusconi

St. Simon
by Moratti

St. Jude Thaddeaus
by Ottoni

St. Philip
by Mazzuoli

St. Thomas
by Le Gros

St. James the Lesser
by de’ Rossi

St. Andrew
by Rusconi

St. John
by Rusconi

St. Matthew
by Rusconi
Papal tombs
Main article: List of extant papal tombs

The Sarcophagus of Saint Helena, reused by Pope Anastasius IV, the only tomb to survive the Lateran fires. It is currently in the Vatican Museums.
There are six extant papal tombs inside the archbasilica: Alexander III (right aisles), Pope Sergius IV (right aisles), Pope Clement XII Corsini (left aisle), Pope Martin V (in front of the confessio); Pope Innocent III (right transept); and Pope Leo XIII (left transept), by G. Tadolini (1907). The last of these, Pope Leo XIII, was the last pope not to be entombed in St. Peter’s Basilica.

Twelve additional papal tombs were constructed in the archbasilica starting in the 10th century, but were destroyed during the two fires that ravaged it in 1308 and 1361. The remains of these charred tombs were gathered and reburied in a polyandrum. The popes whose tombs were destroyed are: Pope John X (914–28), Pope Agapetus II (946–55), Pope John XII (955–64), Pope Paschal II (1099–1118), Pope Callixtus II (1119–24), Pope Honorius II (1124–30), Pope Celestine II (1143–4), Pope Lucius II (1144–5), Pope Anastasius IV (1153–4), Pope Clement III (1187–91), Pope Celestine III (1191–8), and Pope Innocent V (1276). Popes who reigned during this period, whose tombs are unknown, and who may have been buried in the archbasilica include Pope John XVII (1003), Pope John XVIII (1003–9), and Pope Alexander II (1061–73). Pope John X was the first pope buried within the walls of Rome, and was granted a prominent burial due to rumors that he was murdered by Theodora during a historical period known as the saeculum obscurum. Cardinals Vincenzo Santucci and Carlo Colonna are also buried in the archbasilica.

Lateran cloister
Between the archbasilica and the city wall there was in former times a great monastery, in which dwelt the community of monks whose duty it was to provide the services in the archbasilica. The only part of it which still survives is the 13th century cloister, surrounded by graceful, twisted columns of inlaid marble. They are of a style intermediate between the Romanesque proper and the Gothic, and are the work of Vassellectus and the Cosmati.

Lateran baptistery
Main article: Lateran Baptistery
The octagonal Lateran baptistery stands somewhat apart from the archbasilica. It was founded by Pope Sixtus III, perhaps on an earlier structure, for a legend arose that Emperor Constantine I was baptized there and enriched the edifice. The baptistery was for many generations the only baptistery in Rome, and its octagonal structure, centered upon the large basin for full immersions, provided a model for others throughout Italy, and even an iconic motif of illuminated manuscripts known as “the fountain of life”.

Holy Stairs
Main article: Scala Sancta

The Scala Sancta
The Scala Sancta, or Holy Stairs, are white marble steps encased in wooden ones. According to Catholic Tradition, they form the staircase which once led to the praetorium of Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem and which, therefore, were sanctified by the footsteps of Jesus Christ during His Passion. The marble stairs are visible through openings in the wooden risers. Their translation from Jerusalem to the Lateran Palace in the 4th century is credited to St. Empress Helena, the mother of the then-Emperor Constantine I. In 1589, Pope Sixtus V relocated the steps to their present location in front of the ancient palatine chapel named the Sancta Sanctorum. Ferraù Fenzoni completed some of the frescoes on the walls.

Feast of the Dedication of the Archbasilica
In the liturgical calendar of the Catholic Church, 9 November is the feast of the Dedication of the (Arch)Basilica of the Lateran (Dedicatio Basilicae Lateranensis), and is referred to in older texts as the “Dedication of the Basilica of the Holy Savior”.[citation needed] In view of its role as the mother church of the world, this liturgical day is celebrated worldwide as a “feast” and not a “memorial” as might be expected.[by whom?]

Pope Boniface VIII instituted the office of Archpriest of the Archbasilica circa 1299.

List of Archpriests of the Archbasilica:

Gerardo Bianchi (c.1299–1302)
Pietro Valeriano Duraguerra (1302)
Matteo Rosso Orsini (1302–5)
Pietro Colonna (1306–26)
Bertrand de Montfavez (1326–42)
Giovanni Colonna (1342–8)
Pierre Roger de Beaufort (1348–70)
Ange de Grimoard (1371–88)
Pietro Tomacelli (1388?–9)
Francesco Carbone (1389–1405)
Antonio Caetani (1405–12)
Oddone Colonna (1412–7)
Alamanno Adimari (1418–22)
Guillaume Fillastre (1422–8)
Alfonso Carillo de Albornoz (1428–34)
Lucido Conti (1434–7)
Angelotto Fosco (1437–44)
António Martinez de Chaves (1444–7)
Domenico Capranica (1447–58)
Prospero Colonna (1458–63)
Latino Orsini (1463–77)
Giuliano della Rovere (1477–1503)
Giovanni Colonna (1503–8)
Alessandro Farnese (1508–34)
Giovanni Domenico de Cupis (1534–53)
Ranuccio Farnese (1553–65)
Mark Sitticus von Hohenems (1565–88)
Ascanio Colonna (1588–1608)
Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese (1608–20)
Giambattista Leni (1620–7)
Francesco Barberini (1627–9)
Girolamo Colonna (1629–66)
Flavio Chigi (1666–93)
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni (1693–8)
Benedetto Pamphili (1699–1730)
Pietro Ottoboni (1730–40)
Neri Maria Corsini (1740–70)
Mario Marefoschi Compagnoni (1771–80)
Carlo Rezzonico (1781–99)
Francesco Saverio de Zelada (1800–1)
Leonardo Antonelli (1801–11)
Bartolomeo Pacca (1830–44)
Benedetto Barberini (28 April 1844 – 10 April 1863)
Lodovico Altieri (1863–7)
Costantino Patrizi Naro (1867–76)
Flavio Chigi (24 December 1876 – 1885)
Raffaele Monaco La Valletta (1885–96)
Francesco Satolli (16 December 1896 – 8 January 1910)
Pietro Respighi (10 January 1910 – 22 March 1913)
Domenico Ferrata (7 April 1913 – 10 October 1914)
Basilio Pompilj (28 October 1914 – 5 May 1931)
Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani (26 May 1931 – 13 January 1951)
Benedetto Aloisi Masella (27 October 1954 – 30 August 1970)
Angelo Dell’Acqua (7 November 1970 – 27 August 1972)
Ugo Poletti (26 March 1973 – 17 January 1991)
Camillo Ruini (1 July 1991 – 27 June 2008)
Agostino Vallini (27 June 2008 – 26 May 2017)
Angelo De Donatis (26 May 2017 – )

Alessandro Galilei completed the late Baroque façade of the archbasilica in 1735 after winning a competition for the design.

Next to the main entrance is the inscription of the archbasilica’s claim to being the mother church of the world.

Statue of St. John the Baptist.

The decorated ceiling.

Apse depicting mosaics from the Triclinium of Pope Leo III in the ancient Lateran Palace.

The cloister of the attached monastery, with a cosmatesque decoration.

The cloister of the attached monastery.

Urse d’Abetot – Wikipedia d\’Abetotwiki/Urse_d%27Abetot

Château de Tancarville (Seine-Maritime , France)

Château de Tancarville (Seine-Maritime , France)

Urse d’Abetot

Urse d’Abetot[a] (c. 1040 – 1108) was a Norman who followed King William I to England, and became Sheriff of Worcestershire and a royal official under him and Kings William II and Henry I. He was a native of Normandy and moved to England shortly after the Norman conquest of England in 1066, and was appointed sheriff in about 1069. Little is known of his family in Normandy, who were not prominent. Although Urse’s lord in Normandy was present at the Battle of Hastings, there is no evidence that Urse took part in the invasion of England in 1066.

Urse d’Abetot
Sheriff of Worcestershire
In office
c. 1069 – 1108
Preceded by
Cyneweard of Laughern[1]
Succeeded by
Roger d’Abetot
Royal constable
In office
after 1087 – 1108
Personal details
c. 1040
Normandy, France
Roger d’Abetot, Emmeline
Urse built the earliest form of Worcester Castle in Worcester, which encroached on the cathedral cemetery there, earning him a curse from the Archbishop of York. Urse helped to put down a rebellion against King William I in 1075, and quarrelled with the Church in his county over the jurisdiction of the sheriffs. He continued in the service of William’s sons after the king’s death, and was appointed constable under William II and marshal under Henry I. Urse was known for his acquisitiveness, and during William II’s reign was considered second only to Ranulf Flambard, another royal official, in his rapacity. Urse’s son succeeded him as sheriff but was subsequently exiled, thus forfeiting the office. Through his daughter, Urse is an ancestor of the Beauchamp family, who eventually became Earls of Warwick.

Today’s Holiday: Takayama Matsuri

Today’s Holiday:
Takayama Matsuri

Held twice a year in Japan, in the spring and the autumn, the Takayama Festival is famous for its elaborately decorated yatai (festival floats), which are adorned with beautiful fabrics, lacquered wood, and patterned metals. Twelve of these floats appear at the April festival, held at Takayama’s Hie Shrine, and 11 participate in the October festival. Some yatai feature performances of kabuki (puppet plays), often performed by mechanical marionettes. A highlight of the festival is the parade of gongs known as tokeigaku, which produce a unique kind of folk music. More…:

This Day in History: The Bombay Explosion (1944)

This Day in History:
The Bombay Explosion (1944)

The SS Fort Stikine sailed from England in late February 1944 and made stops in Gibraltar, Egypt, and Pakistan before reaching Bombay, India, laden with a cargo of cotton bales, gold, explosives, and munitions. While the ship was berthed there, a fire broke out on board. Attempts to extinguish the fire failed, and a massive explosion soon tore the ship apart, sinking nearby vessels as well and igniting a massive blaze in the surrounding area. How many people were killed in the disaster? More…:

Quote of the Day: Stephen Crane

Quote of the Day:
Stephen Crane

A man said to the universe: “Sir, I exist!” “However,” replied the universe, “That fact has not created in me a sense of obligation.”


Article of the Day: Lion-Baiting

Article of the Day:

Baiting is a blood sport that involves setting game dogs upon an often chained up animal for the purpose of subduing it by incapacitating or killing it. In 1610, during the reign of James I of England, the first recorded lion-baiting event was staged for the amusement of his court. The practice continued in the UK until the early 19th century, when public outrage brought the issue to the attention of parliament. What became of the one dog that survived the 1610 event? More…:

Idiom of the Day: mint money

Idiom of the Day:
mint money

To earn a very large amount of money, especially by doing something very successfully. Watch the video…:

Word of the Day: singsong

Word of the Day:

Definition: (adjective) Uttered in a monotonous cadence or rhythm as in chanting.
Synonyms: chantlike, intoned
Usage: The art of his reading was supposed to lie in rolling out the words, quite independently of their meaning, in a loud and singsong voice alternating between a despairing wail and a tender murmur.:

Watch “Melanie Martinez – Carousel (Lyrics/Subtitulada en Español) [Official Video]” on YouTube