Fabulous Performances: Sayaka Shoji – Tchaikovsky : Violin Concerto in D major op.35 (YouTube Viral – 2,429,203 [posted: Oct 14, 2011]


SOLD OUT! UNFORTUNATELY THIS VIDEO HAS BEEN DESIGNATED PRIVATE STATUS ON/BY YOUTUBE, RENDERING THE VIDEO UNWATCHABLE: WAY TO GO!


Sayaka Shoji is the first Japanese and youngest winner at the Paganini Competition in Genoa in 1999.
She was born into an artistic family and spent her childhood in Siena, Italy. She studied at Hochschule für Musik Köln under Zakhar Bron and graduated in 2004. Her other teachers have included Sashko Gawrillow, Uto Ughi and Shlomo Mintz.

Zubin Mehta has been her strong supporter. When Shoji auditioned for him in 2000, he immediately changed his schedule in order to make her first recording with the Israel Philharmonic possible in the following month, then invited her to perform with Bavarian State Opera and Los Angeles Philharmonic. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

New at euzicasa: Valentina Lisitsa – Franz Liszt – Hungarian Rhapsody No 12



[Quelle: Servus TV]

“The summer has finally arrived to Paris: balmy 30 degrees, sweaty tourists…. It is even more amazing that the moment music begins sounding all those people who a minute ago were hurrying along busily , those people suddenly stop in their tracks and dive into the magic of sound, like it was a cool pool. Enjoy this short report for http://www.streetpianos.com and next time you suddenly hear piano sounds on a hot summer day on a street – it’s not an aural mirage , it’s for real – come and join in !” Continue reading

WordPress.com: Should “Settings” Be Your Choice? (Please take part in this important survey)


I have recently experienced some unwanted activity on my website. To be more specific, some of the followers have associated with you too, my very welcome and followers.

In today’s world ,  I should think that the most fundamental right as a blog administrator would be to decides, upon revising the content who will, or not be approved to become your blogging family.
As I requested several times and through different avenues, WordPress.com so far dismissed my requests to implement Setting choices, allowing us to decide who will, or will not follow us, based upon subject matter, interests, language, and so many other valid criteria in existence here at WordPress.com.  

At this time WordPress.com has no way to allow us the choice of moderating access, compared to Twitter, or even Facebook.

I think that Twitter services have a direct, easy to use, friendly way of empowering a member to freedom of association, and everyone of us is entitled to, without having o ask WordPress.com administration to do that for us upon request (which as I said earlier does not work, or even worse to have to directly contact such followers, which is beneath me (at least).

Here is how Twitter deal with this issue, at a immediate action of the twitter user (highlighted in yellow): 

Twitter v. WordPress Settings

Twitter v. WordPress Settings

Following is a Poll (my first) asking for your input in this issue, and the question is:

“Should the administrator of a WordPress.com be allowed to decide upon the membership at their site?”

Should you need further clarification on this matter, please feel free to comment, before voting! 

Thank you Friends! (as you can see this is NOT about you, it is about us all, I am sure you can too see why

Following is one example for the reasons I requested that word.press.com, allow for administrators’ settings. It would save time, and allow one the peace and tranquility of not having to interact with unwitty profane and vulgar characters!

Phylospher's Stone

Phylospher’s Stone CURSING AND PROFANITY

Enhanced by Zemanta

Hello World!


Air bridge overheadWelcome to: euzicasa.wordpress.com 

        This website is about art, artists and the way some of them  have influenced my whole life.
If at times the content may seem nostalgic, is only when it resonate in quality, in message and in power to influence human knowledge of one’s feelings.
        I am reminded of the little time we have to meditate upon the beauty around us, in an infinity of forms.
It is a duty, I think to share values, like leaflets over a monotonous life, and troubled civilization, away from the roll of coins that cannot buy neither a soul, nor that which makes us human.
        So happy trails, and I hope you too will find something in theses pages that you’ll like to share with others.

Thank You Friends,

George. Continue reading

Danee Robinson – Debussy’s 1883 “Mandoline”, L 29 (The poem of Paul Verlaine)



Danee Robinson is gifted with a pure, soprano angelic voice. She is an evolving presence in the world of classical music, and is getting more and more attention in the world of music, from an ever larger audience. 

How to describe in words her presence in the universe that’s larger than any imagination, the universe of music:

‘I am therefore I sing’

I feel  her  message  throughout her musical career, in her album “Canto di Gioia” (Song of Joy) on stage, and in this beautiful interpretation of “Mandoline”, composed by Claude Debussy, in 1883, for piano and soloist on the poem of Paul Verlaine. A composition exuding youth, and its capacity of playfulness, freedom and happyness…Of love everlasting. Continue reading

From France 24 :


Holocaust survivor Samuel Pisar dies aged 86

image

http://f24.my/1SLin4c

How will Iran’s nuclear deal be policed?


How will Iran’s nuclear deal be policed?

image

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-33672591

From France 24 : Mesajul unui molar


French teenager finds 560,000-year-old ‘human’ tooth

image

http://f24.my/1SLb8JE

Iran leader account’s provocative Obama tweet. (Ori Gura vate curul: nu muşca măna care-da măncare!_)


Iran leader account’s provocative Obama tweet

image

http://www.cnn.com//2015/07/28/politics/iran-ayatollah-khamenei-twitter-obama-image/index.html

John Kerry warns Congress: back Iran nuclear deal or face dire consequences


John Kerry warns Congress: back Iran nuclear deal or face dire consequences

image

http://gu.com/p/4b4xg?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_WordPress

EU satellite gears up for data flood


EU satellite gears up for data flood

image

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-33655004

Toyota


Everyone was entitled to much more!

From NPR News: A TRAMPIAN UBI BEBE, UBI PATRIA


Donald Trump’s Flipping Political Donations

image

http://n.pr/1JM6s1l

.

From NPR News


Happy 50th Birthday, Medicare. Your Patients Are Getting Healthier

image

Continue reading

Russia-Ukraine row over ancient prince


Russia-Ukraine row over ancient prince

image

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-33689641

Why did HSBC shut down bank accounts?


Why did HSBC shut down bank accounts?

image

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-33677946

New fast memory tech outraces flash


New fast memory tech outraces flash

image

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-33675734

First English US founders identified


First English US founders identified

image

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-33680128

‘2,000 migrants’ tried Tunnel entry


‘2,000 migrants’ tried Tunnel entry

image

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-33689473

Hedge funds tell Puerto Rico: lay off teachers and close schools to pay us back


Hedge funds tell Puerto Rico: lay off teachers and close schools to pay us back

image

http://gu.com/p/4b349?CMP=Share_And
Continue reading

Amazon proposes drones-only airspace to facilitate high-speed delivery


Amazon proposes drones-only airspace to facilitate high-speed delivery

image

http://gu.com/p/4b3z2?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_WordPress

make music part of your life series: Alexander Glazunov – Concert Waltz Nr. 2


Alexander Glazunov – Concert Waltz Nr. 2

historic musical bits: BEETHOVEN Piano Trio No.7 ‘Archduke’ | E.Gilels, L.Kogan, M.Rostropovich | 1956


BEETHOVEN Piano Trio No.7 ‘Archduke’ | E.Gilels, L.Kogan, M.Rostropovich | 1956

Saint of the Day for Tuesday, July 28th, 2015: St. Innocent I


Image of St. Innocent I

St. Innocent I

Innocent was born at Albano, Italy. He became Pope, succeeding Pope St. Anastasius I, on December 22, 401. During Innocent’s pontificate, he emphasized papal supremacy, commending the bishops of … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

Israel to Huckabee: ‘No One Is Marching Jews to the Ovens Anymore’


Israel has called the agreement a threat to its survival and has urged U.S. lawmakers to reject the deal, saying it would give Iran a “sure path” to nuclear weapons.

“Dear Mr Huckabee, no one is marching Jews to the ovens anymore,” Katz, a member of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s right-wing Likud party, wrote.

“That is why we established the State of Israel and the Israel Defense Forces, and if necessary, we will know how to defend ourselves by ourselves,” Katz said.

Ron Dermer, Israel’s ambassador to Washington, said in an interview with USA Today’s Capital Download program that while Israel had a “very serious disagreement” with the Obama administration over the Iranian issue, Huckabee’s remarks were inappropriate. The Anti-Defamation League called the remarks “completely out of line and unacceptable.”

Despite the criticism, Huckabee on Tuesday doubled down on his comments, saying the response from Jewish people he has spoken to has been “overwhelmingly supportive.”

“The response from Jewish people has been overwhelmingly positive, the response from Holocaust survivors, from the children of Holocaust survivors,” the former Arkansas governor said, appearing on NBC’s “Today Show.”

“I was last night in an event. I was probably one of four gentiles in the entire event—it was a Jewish event. People were overwhelmingly supportive.”

Huckabee said he would use the same phrasing if he were president because he has “been to Auschwitz three times” and has “stood at that very place.”

via Israel to Huckabee: ‘No One Is Marching Jews to the Ovens Anymore’.

The Papacy Through History: Popes of the Catholic Church


Popes of the Catholic Church

 - (Public Domain)The Papacy Through History

With the election of Jorge Mario Cardinal Bergoglio as Pope Francis in 2013, there have been 266 popes in the history of the Catholic Church. The pope is the spiritual leader of Catholicism and the visible head of the Catholic Church. He is the successor to Saint Peter, the first among the apostles and the first pope of Rome. Taken together, the following articles provide a comprehensive list of all the popes of the Catholic Church, divided up by historical era, as well as the years that they reigned.

Biographies of the popes will be linked off of each article; check back often to see which biographies have been added.

Peru


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
For other uses, see Peru (disambiguation).
Republic of Peru

  • República del Perú  (Spanish)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: “Firme y feliz por la unión” (Spanish)
“Firm and Happy for the Union”
National seal:

Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg

Gran Sello del Estado  (Spanish)
Great Seal of the State

 
Capital
and largest city
Lima
12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W
Official languagesa
Ethnic groups (2013[1])
Demonym Peruvian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 –  President Ollanta Humala
 –  Prime Minister Pedro Cateriano
Legislature Congress
Independence from the Kingdom of Spain
 –  Declared 28 July 1821 
 –  Consolidated 9 December 1824 
 –  Recognized 2 May 1866 
Area
 –  Total 1,285,216 km2 (20th)
496,225 sq mi
 –  Water (%) 0.41
Population
 –  2015 estimate 31,151,643 (41st)
 –  2007 census 28,220,764
 –  Density 23/km2 (191st)
57/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 –  Total $403.322 billion[2]
 –  Per capita $12,638[2]
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 –  Total $217.607 billion[2]
 –  Per capita $6,819[2]
Gini (2012) positive decrease 45.3[3]
medium · 35th
HDI (2014) Steady 0.737[4]
high · 82nd
Currency Nuevo sol (PEN)
Time zone PET (UTC−5)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +51
ISO 3166 code PE
Internet TLD .pe
a. Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages are co-official in the areas where they predominate.

Peru (Listeni/pəˈr/; Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw [pɪɾʊw];[5] Aymara: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: About this sound República del Perú ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.[6]

Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence, the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent.[7] Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

History

Main article: History of Peru

Prehistory and Pre-Columbian period

Main article: Ancient Peru

 
Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of

 
A Moche ceramic vessel from the 5th century depicting a man’s head

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC.[13] Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.[14] The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC.[15] These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC[16] along what is now Peru’s Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavin de Huantar.[17] After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the Christian millennium, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell, both on the coast and in the highlands, during the next thousand years. On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica. The Mochica who reached their apogee in the first millennium AD were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork. The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as loose confederation of cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru and southern Ecuador, the Chimu flourished from about 1150 to 1450. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo. In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca in both Peru and Bolivia, and the Wari culture, near the present-day city of Ayacucho, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 500 and 1000 AD.[18]

 
The citadel of Machu Picchu, an iconic symbol of pre-Columbian Peru

In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco.[19] The Incas of Cusco originally represented one of the small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the Quechuas. Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the great emperor Pachacuti. Under his rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui, the Incas came to control upwards of a third of South America, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco.[20] From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, from southern Colombia to Chile, between the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Amazon rainforest in the east. The official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken. The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu which can be translated as “The Four Regions” or “The Four United Provinces.” Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti, the sun god and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.[21] The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca, to be the “child of the sun.”[22]

Conquest and Colonial period

 
Lima in the early 19th century, near the Monastery of San Francisco

 

 
Main façade of the Cathedral of Lima and the Archbishop’s palace

Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca became emperor when he defeated and executed his older half-brother Huascar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac. In December 1532, a party of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca. The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital at Lima, which became known as “The City of Kings”. The conquest of the Inca Empire led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance. The last Inca resistance was suppressed when the Spaniards annihilated the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba in 1572.

The indigenous population dramatically collapsed due to exploitation, socioeconomic change and epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish. Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with gold and silver mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian forced labor as its primary workforce.[23] With the discovery of the great silver and gold lodes at Potosí (present-day Bolivia) and Huancavelica, the viceroyalty flourished as an important provider of mineral resources. Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines.[24] Because of lack of available work force, African slaves were added to the labor population. The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization. With the conquest started the spread of Christianity in South America; most people were forcefully converted to Catholicism, taking only a generation to convert the population. They built churches in every city and replaced some of the Inca temples with churches, such as the Coricancha in the city of Cusco. The church employed the Inquisition, making use of torture to ensure that newly converted Catholics did not stray to other religions or beliefs. Peruvian Catholicism follows the syncretism found in many Latin American countries, in which religious native rituals have been integrated with Christian celebrations.[25] In this endeavor, the church came to play an important role in the acculturation of the natives, drawing them into the cultural orbit of the Spanish settlers.

By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income.[26] In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms, a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty.[27] The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II‘s rebellion and other revolts, all of which were suppressed.[28] As a result of these and other changes, the Spaniards and their creole successors came to monopolize control over the land, seizing many of the best lands abandoned by the massive native depopulation. However, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. The Treaty of Tordesillas was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. The need to ease communication and trade with Spain led to the split of the viceroyalty and the creation of new viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata at the expense of the territories that formed the viceroyalty of Peru; this reduced the power, prominence and importance of Lima as the viceroyal capital and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires and Bogotá, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These movements led to the formation of the majority of modern-day countries of South America in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.[29] The conquest and colony brought a mix of cultures and ethnicities that did not exist before the Spanish conquered the Peruvian territory. Even though many of the Inca traditions were lost or diluted, new customs, traditions and knowledge were added, creating a rich mixed Peruvian culture.[25]

Independence

 
The Battle of Ayacucho was decisive in ensuring Peruvian independence.

 
Map of the Republic of Peru in the mid 1820s

In the early 19th century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite vacillated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the occupation by military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.

The economic crises, the loss of power of Spain in Europe, the war of independence in North America and native uprisings all contributed to a favorable climate to the development of emancipating ideas among the criollo population in South America. However, the criollo oligarchy in Peru enjoyed privileges and remained loyal to the Spanish Crown. The liberation movement started in Argentina where autonomous juntas were created as a result of the loss of authority of the Spanish government over its colonies.

After fighting for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, José de San Martín created the Army of the Andes and crossed the Andes in 21 days, a great accomplishment in military history. Once in Chile he joined forces with Chilean army General Bernardo O’Higgins and liberated the country in the battles of Chacabuco and Maipú in 1818. On 7 September 1820, a fleet of eight warships arrived in the port of Paracas under the command of general Jose de San Martin and Thomas Cochrane, who was serving in the Chilean Navy. Immediately on 26 October they took control of the town of Pisco. San Martin settled in Huacho on 12 November, where he established his headquarters while Cochrane sailed north blockading the port of Callao in Lima. At the same time in the north, Guayaquil was occupied by rebel forces under the command of Gregorio Escobedo. Because Peru was the stronghold of the Spanish government in South America, San Martin’s strategy to liberate Peru was to use diplomacy. He sent representatives to Lima urging the Viceroy that Peru be granted independence, however all negotiations proved unsuccessful.

 
San Martín proclaiming the independence of Peru. Painting by Juan Lepiani

The Viceroy of Peru, Joaquin de la Pazuela named Jose de la Serna commander-in-chief of the loyalist army to protect Lima from the threatened invasion of San Martin. On 29 January, de la Serna organized a coup against de la Pazuela which was recognized by Spain and he was named Viceroy of Peru. This internal power struggle contributed to the success of the liberating army. In order to avoid a military confrontation San Martin met the newly appointed viceroy, Jose de la Serna, and proposed to create a constitutional monarchy, a proposal that was turned down. De la Serna abandoned the city and on 12 July 1821 San Martin occupied Lima and declared Peruvian independence on 28 July 1821. He created the first Peruvian flag. Alto Peru (Bolivia) remained as a Spanish stronghold until the army of Simón Bolívar liberated it three years later. Jose de San Martin was declared Protector of Peru. Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.[30]

Simon Bolivar launched his campaign from the north liberating the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the Battles of Carabobo in 1821 and Pichincha a year later. In July 1822 Bolivar and San Martin gathered in the Guayaquil Conference. Bolivar was left in charge of fully liberating Peru while San Martin retired from politics after the first parliament was assembled. The newly founded Peruvian Congress named Bolivar dictator of Peru giving him the power to organize the military.

With the help of Antonio José de Sucre they defeated the larger Spanish army in the Battle of Junín on 6 August 1824 and the decisive Battle of Ayacucho on 9 December of the same year, consolidating the independence of Peru and Alto Peru. Alto Peru was later established as Bolivia. During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.[31]

19th century to present

 

Between the 1840s and 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla through increased state revenues from guano exports.[32] However, by the 1870s, these resources had been depleted, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise.[33] Peru embarked on a railroad-building program that helped but also bankrupted the country. In 1879, Peru entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until 1884. Bolivia invoked its alliance with Peru against Chile. The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Chile declared war on 5 April 1879. Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the department of Tarapacá and the provinces of Tacna and Arica, in the Atacama region. Two outstanding military leaders throughout the war were Francisco Bolognesi and Miguel Grau. Originally Chile committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, in order to self determine their national affiliation. However, Chile refused to apply the Treaty, and neither of the countries could determine the statutory framework. After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms in order to recover from the damage of the war. Political stability was achieved only in the early 1900s.

Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the Civilista Party, which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Leguía. The Great Depression caused the downfall of Leguía, renewed political turmoil, and the emergence of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA).[34] The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades. A final peace treaty in 1929, signed between Peru and Chile called the Treaty of Lima, returned Tacna to Peru. Between 1932 and 1933, Peru was engulfed in a year-long war with Colombia over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas department and its capital Leticia. Later, in 1941, Peru became involved in the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War, after which the Rio Protocol sought to formalize the boundary between those two countries. In a military coup on 29 October 1948, Gen. Manuel A. Odria became president. Odría’s presidency was known as the Ochenio. Momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes. A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. At the same time, however, civil rights were severely restricted and corruption was rampant throughout his régime. Odría was succeeded by Manuel Prado Ugarteche. However, widespread allegations of fraud prompted the Peruvian military to depose Prado and install a military junta, led by Ricardo Pérez Godoy. Godoy ran a short transitional government and held new elections in 1963, which were won by Fernando Belaúnde Terry who assumed presidency until 1968. Belaúnde was recognized for his commitment to the democratic process. In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, staged a coup against Belaúnde. Alvarado’s regime undertook radical reforms aimed at fostering development, but failed to gain widespread support. In 1975, General Francisco Morales Bermúdez forcefully replaced Velasco, paralyzed reforms, and oversaw the reestablishment of democracy.

 
Areas where the Shining Path was active in Peru

Peru engaged in a brief successful conflict with Ecuador in the Paquisha War as a result of territorial dispute between the two countries. After the country experienced chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which itself was replaced by the nuevo sol in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles. The per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru’s GDP dropped 20% at which national reserves were a negative $900 million. The economic turbulence of the time acerbated social tensions in Peru and partly contributed to the rise of violent rebel rural insurgent movements, like Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) and MRTA, which caused great havoc throughout the country. Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso and MRTA, and allegations of official corruption, Alberto Fujimori assumed presidency in 1990. Fujimori implemented drastic measures that caused inflation to drop from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991. Faced with opposition to his reform efforts, Fujimori dissolved Congress in the auto-golpe (“self-coup”) of 5 April 1992. He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy. Fujimori’s administration was dogged by insurgent groups, most notably Sendero Luminoso, which carried out terrorist campaigns across the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Fujimori cracked down on the insurgents and was successful in largely quelling them by the late 1990s, but the fight was marred by atrocities committed by both the Peruvian security forces and the insurgents: the Barrios Altos massacre and La Cantuta massacre by Government paramilitary groups, and the bombings of Tarata and Frecuencia Latina by Sendero Luminoso. Those incidents subsequently came to be seen as symbols of the human rights violations committed during the last years of violence.

 
Lima, 2009.

During that time in early 1995, once again Peru and Ecuador clashed in the Cenepa War, but in 1998 the governments of both nations signed a peace treaty that clearly demarcated the international boundary between them. In November 2000, Fujimori resigned from office and went into a self-imposed exile, avoiding prosecution for human rights violations and corruption charges by the new Peruvian authorities. Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth.[35]

A caretaker government presided over by Valentín Paniagua took on the responsibility of conducting new presidential and congressional elections. Afterwards Alejandro Toledo became president in 2001.

On 28 July 2006 former president Alan García became President of Peru after winning the 2006 elections. In May 2008, Peru became a member of the Union of South American Nations.

On 5 June 2011, Ollanta Humala was elected President.

Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Peru

 
Congress sits in the Palacio Legislativo in Lima.

Government

Main article: Government of Peru

Peru is a Presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for five years and can only seek re-election after standing down for at least one full term and during his term.[36] The President designates the Prime Minister and, with his or her advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers.[37] Congress is unicameral with 130 members elected for five-year terms.[38] Bills may be proposed by either the executive or the legislative branch; they become law after being passed by Congress and promulgated by the President.[39] The judiciary is nominally independent,[40] though political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and arguably continues today.[41]

The Peruvian government is directly elected, and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70.[42] Congress is currently composed of Gana Perú (47 seats), Fuerza 2011 (37 seats), Alianza Parlamentaria (20 seats), Alianza por el Gran Cambio (12 seats), Solidaridad Nacional (8 seats) and Concertación Parlamentaria (6 seats).[43]

Foreign relations

 
The VI Summit of the Pacific Alliance: President of Peru, Ollanta Humala is first from the right.

Peruvian foreign relations have historically been dominated by border conflicts with neighboring countries, most of which were settled during the 20th century.[44] Recently, Peru disputed its maritime limits with Chile in the Pacific Ocean.[45] Peru is an active member of several regional blocs and one of the founders of the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a participant in international organizations such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori’s tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru’s relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001 after free and fair elections.

Peru is planning full integration into the Andean Free Trade Area. In addition, Peru is a standing member of APEC and the World Trade Organization, and is an active participant in negotiations toward a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Military and law enforcement

Main article: Peruvian Armed Forces

The Peruvian Armed Forces are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army, Navy and Air Force components. Their primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. As a secondary mission they participate in economic and social development as well as in civil defense tasks.[46] Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service.[47] The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief.

The National Police of Peru is often classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organisation and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land, sea and air capabilities and approximately 140,000 personnel. The Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru reports through the Ministry of Interior.

Regions

Clickable map of the regions of Peru

Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and council that serve four-year terms.[48] These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property.[49] The province of Lima is administered by a city council.[50] The goal of devolving power to regional and municipal governments was among others to improve popular participation. NGOs played an important role in the decentralisation process and still influence local politics.[51]

Regions

today’s holiday: Peru Independence Day


Peru Independence Day

Peru had been a colony of Spain for nearly 300 years when Simon Bolívar (1783-1830), along with José San Martín (1778-1850), led the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824 that resulted in the end of Spanish rule of Bolivia and Peru. San Martín had declared independence on July 28, 1821, but Peru’s sovereignty was not secured until Bolívar’s forces defeated the Spanish at Ayacucho. Celebrated all over Peru, Independence Day is a public holiday. More… Discuss

quotation: The good befriend themselves. Sophocles


The good befriend themselves.

Sophocles (496 BC-406 BC) Discuss

today’s birthday: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis (1929)


Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis (1929)

Onassis was the wife of US President John F. Kennedy and served as First Lady during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. Her graciousness, elegance, and beauty endeared her to the American public, and her broad culture and ease in speaking Spanish and French impressed foreign leaders. Five years after her first husband’s murder, she married Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis. Upon his death in 1975, she returned to New York and became successful in what occupation? More… Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: US Bomber Crashes into New York’s Empire State Building (1945)


US Bomber Crashes into New York’s Empire State Building (1945)

On a foggy Saturday morning in July 1945, a B-25 Mitchell bomber accidentally crashed into the north side of the Empire State Building between the 79th and 80th floors. One of the plane’s engines shot through the building and out the other side, and the other plummeted down an elevator shaft. Though 14 people died in the incident, the building was largely open for business on the following Monday. What Guinness World Record was set by elevator operator Betty Lou Oliver during the accident? More… Discuss

Giuseppe Mazzini


Giuseppe Mazzini

Mazzini was an Italian patriot, revolutionist, and an outstanding figure of the Risorgimento, the era of nationalism and activism that led to Italy’s unification. In his youth, he devoted himself to literary and philosophical studies and later joined the Carbonari, a secret society with political purposes. He was imprisoned, went into exile, and founded Giovine Italia, a secret society that pushed for a united Italian republic. How did Mazzini’s contributions factor into the formation of the EU? More… Discuss

word: flunky


flunky

Definition: (noun) A person of unquestioning obedience.
Synonyms: stooge, yes-man
Usage: I liked the play, but I felt that the character of Joe was too much of a flunky, always trying to please Roger and never standing up for himself. Discuss.

From France 24 : OLYMPICS 2024


US mulls LA bid for 2024 Olympics as Boston walks out

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http://f24.my/1LP4JwP


Greece’s Varoufakis defends covert plan to hack tax codes

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  http://f24.my/1SKOjFO

Google unlinks Google+ from YouTube


Google unlinks Google+ from YouTube

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-33687110

Android bug affects ‘billion’ phones


Android bug affects ‘billion’ phones

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-33689399

Rare NATO talks begin


Rare NATO talks begin

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http://www.cnn.com//2015/07/28/middleeast/turkey-nato-talks/index.html

From NPR News


California Health Insurance Exchange Keeps Rate Hikes Low — Again

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http://n.pr/1JLyqdE

UK is no place for dirty money – PM


UK is no place for dirty money – PM

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-33684098

Tech experts caution on killer AI


Tech experts caution on killer AI

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-33686581

Obama attacks Huckabee Israel remarks


Obama attacks Huckabee Israel remarks

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-33682334

From NPR News:


President Obama Urges Kenyans To ‘Choose Path Of Progress’

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http://n.pr/1HS1rGn

From NPR News: Tech-Major Flaw ln Android


Major Flaw In Android Phones Would Let Hackers In With Just A Text

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http://n.pr/1esu2Yh

From NPR News


Republicans Stand Against Cuba Change Despite Cuban-Americans’ Shift

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http://n.pr/1SxZQs9

Mexico search finds 60 mass graves


Mexico search finds 60 mass graves

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-33671636

Are night shifts killing me?


Are night shifts killing me?

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-33638905

World War I Navy Recruiting Poster



World War I Navy Recruiting Poster

An oil painting by artist James Montgomery Flagg was the original artwork for this World War I Navy recruiting poster that reads ‘The Navy Needs You! Don’t Read American History – Make It!’.

Navy Art Collection

Here’s Pope Francis’ schedule for the Jubilee of Mercy :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)


Pope Francis before the Holy Door of St. Peter’s Basilica during the convocation of the Jubilee of Mercy, April 11, 2015. Credit: L’Osservatore Romano.

Vatican City, Jul 22, 2015 / 12:04 am (CNA/EWTN News).- Twelve prominent events, each with the participation of Pope Francis, have been scheduled in Rome for the upcoming Jubilee of Mercy, and CNA was able to glance at details of their programs.

The twelve big events of the Jubilee of Mercy will be: 24 hours for the Lord, a day-long period of Eucharistic adoration; To Dry the Tears, a prayer vigil; and jubilees centered on pilgrimage workers; the sick and disabled; catechists; deacons; teenagers; priests; volunteers of mercy; the Curia; Mary; and Divine Mercy spirituality.

In addition to these events, a “Jubilee for Padre Pio’s prayer group” will take place Feb. 13, 2016, as the body of the Capuchin saint who bore stigmata for much of his life will be exposed in Saint Peter’s Basilica Feb. 8-14, at Pope Francis’ request.

“The Holy Father expressed the wish that Padre Pio’s corpse be exposed in St. Peter’s Basilica on Ash Wednesday of the upcoming Extraordinary Holy Year, that is, the day when the Pope will send the missionaries of Mercy, giving them a special mandate to preach and hear confessions, so that they be a lively sign of how the Father welcomes those who seeks his pardon,” Archbishop Rino Fisichella, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization, wrote to Archbishop Michele Castoro of the Archdiocese of Manfredonia-Vieste-San Giovanni Rotondo.

Here is a description of the full schedule of the meetings.

via Here’s Pope Francis’ schedule for the Jubilee of Mercy :: Catholic News Agency (CNA).

China’s Christians protest ‘evil’ Communist campaign to tear down crosses


China’s Christians protest ‘evil’ Communist campaign to tear down crosses

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http://gu.com/p/4b29g?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_WordPress

The Counted: people killed by police in the United States in 2015 – interactive


The Counted: people killed by police in the United States in 2015 – interactive

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http://gu.com/p/492j3?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_WordPress

Litvinenko suspect will not testify


Litvinenko suspect will not testify

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-33674469

Boulders Of Temecula Engraving


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Boulders Of Temecula Engraving

Taking a road trip this summer? Enjoy America’s crumbling infrastructure


Taking a road trip this summer? Enjoy America’s crumbling infrastructure

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http://gu.com/p/4aptn?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_WordPress

Turkey agrees plan for ‘Isis-free zone’ along Syrian border


Turkey agrees plan for ‘Isis-free zone’ along Syrian border

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http://gu.com/p/4b2ep?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_WordPress