Daily Archives: February 16, 2015

Watch “Beethoven Sonata Op.31 # 2. “Tempest” Valentina Lisitsa” on YouTube


Beethoven Sonata Op.31 # 2. “Tempest” Valentina Lisitsa: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLyTrgbHEyUqRW2sBt5aU80lBZBq3pZpkH

Posted from WordPress for Android

Advertisements

Aerial Stingrays-2-Color pencil sketch: Amazing sketch from my SketchGuru


image

I’ve been using SketchGuru and I think you might like it. Check out from your Android phone:

https://market.android.com/details?id=com.seventeenmiles.sketch

Sent from my Android.

Posted from WordPress for Android

Aerial Stingrays : Amazing sketch from my SketchGuru


image

I’ve been using SketchGuru and I think you might like it. Check out from your Android phone:

https://market.android.com/details?id=com.seventeenmiles.sketch

Sent from my Android.

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : ISIS atrocity in Libya evidence of growing reach


ISIS atrocity in Libya evidence of growing reach
http://www.cnn.com//2015/02/16/africa/isis-libya-north-africa/index.html

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Bergen: Why does ISIS keep making enemies?


Bergen: Why does ISIS keep making enemies?
http://www.cnn.com//2015/02/16/opinion/bergen-isis-enemies/index.html

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Schools reopen in Ebola-hit Liberia


Schools reopen in Ebola-hit Liberia http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-31487988

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Egypt ready for Libya evacuations


Egypt ready for Libya evacuations http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31452875

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Islamist jailed for criticising UAE


Islamist jailed for criticising UAE http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31479650

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Hadi allies clash with Yemen police


Hadi allies clash with Yemen police http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31486879

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Poetry by Iain Banks to be published


Poetry by Iain Banks to be published http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-edinburgh-east-fife-31480717

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Miss Saigon dominates theatre awards


Miss Saigon dominates theatre awards http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-31478215

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Casual Vacancy tops TV drama ratings


Casual Vacancy tops TV drama ratings http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-31486077

Posted from WordPress for Android

FROM BBC : Saturday Night Live marks 40 years


Saturday Night Live marks 40 years http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-31486033

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : US north-east shivers in snowstorms


US north-east shivers in snowstorms http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31484740

Posted from WordPress for Android


MOZART – ABDUCTION FROM THE SERAGLIO -IMPOSSIBLE PERFORMANCE

Mind Your History: Ottoman wars in Europe (8 centuries of attack, countless losses)


Ottoman wars in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Ottoman wars in Europe, known as the Ottoman Wars or Turkish Wars for short, were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and a number of European states from the Late Medieval period to the 20th century. Military activities began with the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars from the late 13th century, complemented by the Bulgarian–Ottoman Wars and the Serbian–Ottoman Wars in the 14th century, whereupon the Ottoman Empire rapidly conquered the Balkans. The initial Serbian–Ottoman Wars, Croatian–Ottoman Wars and the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars allowed the further expansion of the Ottomans into Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Turkish political domination was nevertheless kept at bay after the unsuccessful Siege of Vienna (1529), and the Ottoman–Habsburg wars. The so-called Holy League of Christian states was able to partially reverse a number of Ottoman conquests during the Great Turkish War of the late 17th century. The empire was slow to modernise its military along European lines. Internal rebellions such as the Serbian revolution (1804–1817) and the Greek War of Independence (1821–1832), coupled with the frequent wars with Russia and Poland, weakened the empire, which collapsed at the conclusion of World War I with the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres.
Ottoman wars in Europe
Date 14th century–1918
Location Mostly Southeast Europe: Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, Wallachia, Moldova, Transylvania, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Slovenia, and Cyprus, but also Ukraine, Crimea, Hungary, Slovakia, Austria, Malta, Sicily, and the Eastern Mediterranean.
Result Ottoman Turks expand as far as Vienna at their peak, but are eventually pushed back to Eastern Thrace.
Belligerents
Holy League:

 Ottoman Empire
 Kingdom of France (from 1536)
Commanders and leaders
Coa Kastrioti Family.svg Skanderbeg

Rise (1299–1453)

Byzantine Empire

After striking a blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire in 1356 (it is disputed that the year may have been 1358 due to a change in the Byzantine calendar), (see Suleyman Pasha) which provided it a basis for operations in Europe, the Ottoman Empire started its westward expansion into the European continent in the middle of the 14th century.

Constantinople fell in 1453 after the Battle of Varna and the Second Battle of Kosovo.

All of Greece fell in 1460 (see: Ottoman Greece).

Bulgarian Empire

In the latter half of the 14th century the Ottoman Empire proceeded to advance north and west in the Balkans, completely subordinating Thrace and much of Macedonia after the Battle of Maritsa in 1371. Sofia fell in 1382, followed by the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire Tarnovgrad in 1393, and the northwest remnants of the state after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.

Serbian Empire

Main article: Serbian-Ottoman Wars

A significant opponent was the young Serbian Empire, which was worn down by a series of campaigns, notably in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which the leaders of both armies were killed, and which gained a central role in Serbian folklore as an epic battle and beginning of bad luck for Serbia. Much of Serbia fell to the Ottomans by 1459, the Kingdom of Hungary made a partial reconquest in 1480, but it fell again by 1499. Territories of Serbian Empire were divided between Ottoman Empire, Republic of Venice and Royal Hungary, with remaining territories being in some sort of a vassal status towards Hungary, until its own conquest.

Growth and Stagnation (1453–1683)

The defeat in 1456 at the Siege of Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade) held up Ottoman expansion into Catholic Europe for 70 years, though for one year (1480–1481) the Italian port of Otranto was taken, and in 1493 the Ottoman army successfully raided Croatia and Styria.[2]

Wars in Albania

The Ottomans took much of Albania in the 1385 Battle of Savra. The 1444 League of Lezhë briefly restored one part of Albania, until Ottomans captured complete territory of Albania after capture of Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501.

The Ottomans faced the fiercest resistance from Albanians who gathered around their leader, George Castriot, son of a feudal nobleman, and managed to fend off Ottoman attacks for more than 25 years, culminating at the siege of Shkodra in 1478–79. It has been argued that Albanian resilience halted the Ottoman advance along the Eastern flank of the Western Civilization, saving the Italian peninsula from Ottoman conquest. Sultan Mehmet II died in 1481, merely two years after the collapse of the Albanian resistance and one year after he launched an Italian campaign.

Conquest of Bosnia

Ottoman Empire first reached Bosnia in 1388 where they were defeated by Bosnian forces in the Battle of Bileca and then were forced to retreat.[3] After the fall of Serbia in 1389 Battle of Kosovo, where the Bosnians participated through Vlatko Vuković, the Turks began various offensives against the Kingdom of Bosnia. The Bosnians defended themselves but without much success. Bosnians resisted strongly in the Bosnian Royal castle of Jajce, where the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević tried to repel the Turks. The Ottoman army conquered it after a few months of the siege of Jajce, in 1463, and executed the last King of Bosnia, ending the Medieval Bosnia.

The House of Kosača held Herzegovina until 1482.

Croatia

 
Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the Klis Fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, an elite Croatian military faction of Uskoci was formed.

After the fall of the Kingdom of Bosnia into Ottoman hands in 1463, the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Croatia remained unprotected, the defense of which was left to Croatian gentry who kept smaller troops in the fortified border areas at their own expense. The Ottomans meanwhile reached the river Neretva and having conquered Herzegovina (Rama) in 1482, they encroached upon Croatia, skillfully avoiding the fortified border towns. A decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava field shook all of Croatia. However, it did not dissuade the Croats from making persistent attempts at defending themselves against the attacks of the superior Ottoman forces. After almost two hundred years of Croatian resistance against the Ottoman Empire, the victory in the Battle of Sisak marked the end of Ottoman rule and the Hundred Years’ Croatian-Ottoman War. The Viceroy’s army, chasing the fleeing remnants at Petrinja in 1595, sealed the victory.

Conquest of central parts of Hungarian Kingdom

The Kingdom of Hungary, which at the time spanned the area from Croatia in the west to Transylvania in the east, was also gravely threatened by Ottoman advances. The origins of such a deterioration can be traced back to the fall of the Árpád ruling dynasty and their subsequent replacement with the Angevin and Jagiellonian kings. After a series of inconclusive wars over the course of 176 years, the kingdom finally crumbled in the Battle of Mohács of 1526, after which most of it was either conquered or brought under Ottoman suzerainty. (The 150-year Turkish Occupation, as it is called in Hungary, lasted until the late 17th century but parts of the Hungarian Kingdom were under Ottoman rule from 1421 and until 1718.)

Conquest of Serbia/ Vojvodina rebellion

As a result of heavy losses inflicted by the Ottomans in the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the Serbian Empire had dissolved into several principalities. In the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, Serbian forces were again annihilated. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, constant struggles took place between various Serbian kingdoms on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The turning point was the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. In 1459 following the siege, the “temporary” Serbian capital of Smederevo fell. Montenegro was overrun by 1499. Belgrade was the last major Balkan city to endure Ottoman forces. Serbs, Hungarians and European crusaders defeated the Turkish army in the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. After repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrade finally fell in 1521, along with the greater part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Vojvodina rebellion between 1526/28 saw the proclamation of Second Serbian Empire in Vojvodina, which was among last Serbian territories to resist the Ottomans. The Serbian Despotate fell in 1540, thus marking the two-century-long Ottoman conquest of Serbian principalities.

 
Ottoman advances resulted in some of the captive Christians being carried deep into Turkish territory.

1463–1503: Wars with Venice

The wars with the Republic of Venice began in 1463, until a favorable peace treaty was signed in 1479 after the lengthy siege of Shkodra (1478–79). In 1480, now no longer hampered by the Venetian fleet, the Ottomans besieged Rhodes and captured Otranto.[4] War with Venice resumed from 1499 to 1503. In 1500, a Spanish-Venetian army commanded by Gonzalo de Córdoba took Kefalonia, temporarily stopping the Ottoman offensive on eastern Venetian territories. Which is resumed after the Ottoman victory of Preveza, fought between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in 1538.

1462–1483: Wallachian and Moldavian campaigns

In 1462, Mehmed II was driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. However, the latter was imprisoned by Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. This caused outrage among many influential Hungarian figures and Western admirers of Vlad’s success in the battle against the Ottoman Empire (and his early recognition of the threat it posed), including high-ranking members of the Vatican. Because of this, Matthias granted him the status of distinguished prisoner. Eventually, Dracula was freed in late 1475 and was sent with an army of Hungarian and Serbian soldiers to recover Bosnia from the Ottomans. He defeated Ottoman Forces and he gained his first victory against the Ottoman Empire. Upon this victory, Ottoman Forces entered Wallachia in 1476 under the command of Mehmed II.[clarification needed] During the war, Vlad was killed and, according to some sources, his head was sent to Constantinople to discourage the other rebellions.

 
Ottoman soldiers in the territory of present-day Hungary

The Turkish advance was temporarily halted after Stephen the Great of Moldavia defeated the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II‘s armies at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, which was one of the greatest defeats of the Ottoman Empire until that time. Stephen was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamţului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen’s search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had “cut off the pagan‘s right hand” – as he put it in a letter.

In 1482, Bosnia was completely added to Ottoman Lands.

1526–1566: Conquest of Hungarian Kingdom

After the Mohács, only the southwestern part of the Hungarian Kingdom was actually conquered,[5] but the Ottoman campaign continued with small campaigns and major summer invasions (troops returned south of the Balkan Mountains before winter) through the land between 1526 and 1556. In 1529, they mounted their first major attack on the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (with up to 300,000 troops in earlier accounts, 100,000 according to newer research[who?]), attempting to conquer the city of Vienna (Siege of Vienna). In 1532, another attack on Vienna with 60,000 troops in the main army was held up by the small fort (800 defenders) of Kőszeg in western Hungary, fighting a suicidal battle.[6] The invading troops were held up until winter was close and the Habsburg Empire had assembled a force of 80,000 at Vienna. The Ottoman troops returned home through Styria, laying waste to the country.

In the meantime, in 1538, the Ottoman Empire invaded Moldavia. In 1541, another campaign in Hungary took Buda and Pest (which today together form the Hungarian capital Budapest) with a largely bloodless trick: after concluding peace talks with an agreement, troops stormed the open gates of Buda in the night. In retaliation for a failed Austrian counter-attack in 1542, the conquest of the western half of central Hungary was finished in the 1543 campaign that took both the most important royal ex-capital, Székesfehérvár, and the ex-seat of the cardinal, Esztergom. However, the army of 35–40,000 men was not enough for Suleiman to mount another attack on Vienna. A temporary truce was signed between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires in 1547, which was soon disregarded by the Habsburgs.

 
The Ottoman campaign in Hungary in 1566, Crimean Tatars as vanguard

In the major but moderately successful campaign of 1552, two armies took the eastern part of central Hungary, pushing the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the second (inner) line of northern végvárs (border castles), which Hungary originally built as defence against an expected second Mongol invasion—hence, afterwards, borders on this front changed little. For Hungarians, the 1552 campaign was a series of tragic losses and some heroic (but pyrrhic) victories, which entered folklore—most notably the fall of Drégely (a small fort defended to the last man by just 146 men[7]), and the Siege of Eger. The latter was a major végvár with more than 2,000 men, without outside help. They faced two Ottoman armies (150,000 troops by earlier accounts, 60-75,000 men according to newer research[who?]), which were surprisingly unable to take the castle within five weeks. (The fort was later taken in 1596.) Finally, the 1556 campaign secured Ottoman influence over Transylvania (which had fallen under Habsburg control for a time), while failing to gain any ground on the western front, being tied down in the second (after 1555) unsuccessful siege of the southwestern Hungarian border castle of Szigetvár.

The Ottoman Empire conducted another major war against the Habsburgs and their Hungarian territories between 1566 and 1568. The 1566 Battle of Szigetvar, the third siege in which the fort was finally taken, but the aged Sultan died, deterring that year’s push for Vienna.

1522–1573: Rhodes, Malta and the Holy League

 
The siege of Malta – Arrival of the Turkish Fleet by Matteo Perez d’Aleccio

Ottoman forces invaded and captured the island of Rhodes in 1522, after two previous failed attempts (see Siege of Rhodes).[8] The Knights of Rhodes were banished to Malta, which was in turn besieged in 1565.

After a siege of three months, the Ottoman army failed to control all of the Maltese forts. Delaying the Ottomans until bad weather conditions and the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements, made Ottoman commander Kızılahmedli Mustafa Pasha quit the siege. Around 22000 to 48000 Ottoman forces against 6000 to 8500 Maltese forces, the Ottomans failed to conquer Malta, sustaining about 10000 losses, including one of the greatest Muslim corsair generals of the time, Dragut, and were repulsed. Had Malta fallen, Sicily and mainland Italy could have fallen under the threat of an Ottoman invasion. The victory of Malta during this event, which is nowadays known as the Great Siege of Malta, turned the tide and gave Europe hopes and motivation. It also marked the importance of the Knights of Saint John and their relevant presence in Malta to aid Christendom in its defence against the Muslim conquest.

The Ottoman naval victories of this period were in the Battle of Preveza (1538) and the Battle of Djerba (1560).

 
Battle of Lepanto on 7 October 1571

The Mediterranean campaign, which lasted from 1570 to 1573, resulted in the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus. A Holy League of Venice, the Papal States, Spain, the Knights of Saint John in Malta and initially Portugal was formed against the Ottoman Empire during this period. The League’s victory in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) briefly ended Ottoman predominance at sea.

1570–1571: Conquest of Cyprus

In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, and laid siege to Nicosia. In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell—September 9, every public building and palace was looted. Word of the superior Ottoman numbers spread, and a few days later Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot. Famagusta, however, resisted and put up a defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571.

The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months later, the naval forces of the Holy League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history. The victory over the Turks, however, came too late to help Cyprus, and the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries.

In 1570, the Ottoman Empire first conquered Cyprus, and Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Ottoman governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice. Simultaneously, the Pope formed a coalition between the Papal States, Malta, Spain, Venice and several other Italian states, with no real result. In 1573 the Venetians left, removing the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

1593–1669: Austria, Venice and Wallachia

 
Turkish Empire, drawn by Hondius, just at the end of the Long War, 1606

1620-1621: Poland

Was fought over Moldavia. The Polish army advanced into Moldavia and was defeated in the Battle of Ţuţora. The Next year, the Poles repelled the Turkish invasion in the Battle of Khotyn. Another conflict started in 1633 but was soon settled.

1657–1683 Conclusion of Wars with Habsburgs

In 1657, Transylvania, the Eastern part of the former Hungarian Kingdom that after 1526 gained semi-independence while paying tribute to the Ottoman Empire, felt strong enough to attack the Tatars (then the Empire’s vassals) to the East, and later the Ottoman Empire itself, that came to the Tatars’ defence. The war lasted until 1662, ending in defeat for the Hungarians. The Western part of the Hungarian Kingdom (Partium) was annexed and placed under direct Ottoman control, marking the greatest territorial extent of Ottoman rule in the former Hungarian Kingdom. At the same time, there was another campaign against Austria between 1663 and 1664. However, the Turks were defeated in the Battle of Saint Gotthard on 1 August 1664 by Raimondo Montecuccoli, forcing them to enter the Peace of Vasvár with Austria, which held until 1683.[9]

 
Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683

1672–1676: Poland

A year after Poland beat back a Tatar invasion, war with Poland 1672–1676, Jan Sobieski distinguishes himself and becomes the King of Poland.

1683–1699: Great Turkish War – Loss of Hungary and the Morea

The Great Turkish War started in 1683, with a grand invasion force of 140,000 men[10] marching on Vienna, supported by Protestant Hungarian noblemen rebelling against Habsburg rule. To stop the invasion, another Holy League was formed, composed of Austria and Poland (notably in the Battle of Vienna), Venetians and the Russian Empire. After winning the Battle of Vienna, the Holy League gained the upper hand, and conducted the re-conquest of Hungary (Buda and Pest were retaken in 1686, the former under the command of a Swiss-born convert to Islam). At the same time, the Venetians launched an expedition into Greece, which conquered the Peloponnese. During the 1687 Venetian attack on the city of Athens (conquered by the Ottomans), the Ottomans turned the ancient Parthenon into an ammunitions storehouse. A Venetian mortar hit the Parthenon, detonating the Ottoman gunpowder stored inside and partially destroying it.[11]

The war ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Prince Eugene of Savoy first distinguished himself in 1683 and remained the most important Austrian commander until 1718.[12][13]

Stagnation (1699–1828)

18th century

 
Austrian conquest of Belgrade: 1717 by Eugene of Savoy, during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18

The second Russo-Turkish War took place 1710–1711 near Prut. It was instigated by Charles XII of Sweden after the defeat at the Battle of Poltava, in order to tie down Russia with the Ottoman Empire and gain some breathing space in the increasingly unsuccessful Great Northern War. The Russians were severely beaten but not annihilated, and after the Treaty of Prut was signed the Ottoman Empire disengaged, allowing Russia to refocus its energies on the defeat of Sweden.

Another war with Austria and Venice started in 1714. Austria conquered the remaining areas of the former Hungarian Kingdom, ending with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718.

Another war with Russia started in 1735. The Austrians joined in 1737; the war ended in 1739 with the Treaty of Belgrade (with Austria) and the Treaty of Niš (with Russia).

The fourth Russo-Turkish War started in 1768 and ended in 1774 with the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji.

Yet another war with Russia and Austria started in 1787; it ended by Austria with the 1791 Treaty of Sistova, and with the 1792 Treaty of Jassy with Russia.

An invasion of Egypt and Syria by Napoleon I of France took place in 1798–99, but ended due to British intervention.

Napoleon’s capture of Malta on his way to Egypt resulted in the unusual alliance of Russia and the Ottomans resulting in a joint naval expedition to the Ionian Islands. Their successful capture of these islands led to the setting up of the Septinsular Republic.

19th century

The First Serbian Uprising took place in 1804, followed by the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815; Serbia was fully liberated by 1867. Officially recognized independence followed in 1878.

The sixth Russo-Turkish War began in 1806 and ended in May 1812, just 13 days before Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

Moldavian-Wallachian (Romanian) Uprising (starting simultaneously with the Greek Revolution).

The Greek War of Independence, taking place from 1821 to 1832, in which the Great Powers intervened from 1827, including Russia (seventh Russo–Turkish war, 1828–1829), achieved independence for Greece; the Treaty of Adrianople ended the war.

Ottoman decline (1828–1908)

 
Ottoman capitulation at Nikopol, 1877

Ottoman Wars with Bosnia 1831–1836, 1836–1837, 1841.

War with Albania 1820-1822, 1830-1835, 1847.

War with Montenegro 1852–1853.

Eighth Russo-Turkish war 1853–1856, Crimean War, in which the United Kingdom and France joined the war on the side of the Ottoman Empire. Ended with the Treaty of Paris.

Second war with Montenegro in 1858–1859.

War with Montenegro, Bosnia and Serbia in 1862.

Cretan Uprising in 1866.

Bulgarian Rebellion in 1876.

The ninth and final Russo–Turkish war started in 1877, the same year the Ottomans withdrew from the Conference of Constantinople. Romania then declared its independence and waged war on Turkey, joined by Serbians and Bulgarians and finally the Russians (see also Russian Foreign Affairs after the Crimean War). Austria occupied Bosnia in 1878. The Russians and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano in early 1878. After deliberations at the Congress of Berlin, which was attended by all the Great Powers of the time, the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 recognized several territorial changes.

Eastern Rumelia was granted some autonomy in 1878, rebelled and joined Bulgaria in 1885. Thessalia ceded to Greece in 1881, but after Greece attacked the Ottoman Empire to help the Second Cretan Uprising in 1897, Greece was broken in Thessalia.

Dissolution (1908–1922)

 
Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908

Italo-Turkish War

Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising

Bulgarian insurrection from 1903. See Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising.

1912–1913: Balkan Wars

Two Balkan Wars, in 1912 and 1913, involved further action against the Ottoman Empire in Europe. The Balkan League first conquered Macedonia and most of Thrace from the Ottoman Empire, and then fell out over the division of the spoils. Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, after several rebellions and uprisings. This reduced Turkey’s possessions in Europe (Rumelia) to their present borders in Eastern Thrace.

World War I

World War I was the ultimate cause of the collapse of the Empire, which was no more. However, during the operations the Empire prevented the British Royal Navy from passing to Istanbul in the famous Battle of Gallipoli. Nevertheless, Turkey lost most of the rest of what it had left in Europe. Leading to the fall of the empire.

See also

Scotland James IV[citation needed]

this pressed for your information: BBC News – Ukraine now a ‘crisis for Russia and West’, says ex-MI6 boss


Sir John Sawers Sir John Sawers, the former head of MI6, warned Western governments against arming Ukraine

Ukraine now a ‘crisis for Russia and West’, says ex-MI6 boss

Sir John Sawers Sir John Sawers, the former head of MI6, warned Western governments against arming Ukraine

Continue reading the main story

Ukraine crisis

Minsk 2015: Key points

Moment troops told of peace deal Watch

What next?

Estonia PM warns of escalation Watch

The conflict in Ukraine is now part of a much bigger crisis between Russia and the West, MI6’s former head has said.

Sir John Sawers warned the crisis was no longer about just Ukraine, saying it was “much bigger and more dangerous”.

via BBC News – Ukraine now a ‘crisis for Russia and West’, says ex-MI6 boss.

From CNN : Poll: Most disapprove of Obama handling of ISIS


Poll: Most disapprove of Obama handling of ISIS
http://www.cnn.com//2015/02/16/politics/cnn-poll-isis-obama-approval/index.html

Posted from WordPress for Android

From VOA : US, Global Partners Seek Community Support in Fighting Extremism


http://www.voanews.com/A/2646517.html

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Ex-MI6 boss warns on Ukraine crisis


Ex-MI6 boss warns on Ukraine crisis http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-31496933

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Crowds turn out for Danish vigil


Crowds turn out for Danish vigil http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-31493764

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : US drone rules impact Amazon plans


US drone rules impact Amazon plans http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-31487510

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Iraq preparing to retake Mosul – PM


Iraq preparing to retake Mosul – PM http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31484732

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Spain priests abuse charges dropped


Spain priests abuse charges dropped http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-31493461

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Egypt seeks Libya intervention


Egypt seeks Libya intervention http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-31494806

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Greece willing to reach new deal


Greece willing to reach new deal http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-31485073

Posted from WordPress for Android

Saint of the Day for Monday, February 16th, 2015 : St. Daniel


Image of St. Daniel

St. Daniel

Died in 309, He and four companions, Elias, Isaias, Jeremy and Samuel were Egyptians who visited Christians condemned to work in the mines of Cilicia during Maximus persecution, to comfort them. … continue reading

More Saints of the Day

Historic Musical Bits ,Rubinstein Mozart Concerto 17, 20, 21, 23 & 24, great compositions/performances


Rubinstein Mozart Concerto 17, 20, 21, 23 & 24.wmv

Historic Musical Bits: Kempff plays Schubert Piano Sonata in A Major D664, great compositions/performances


Kempff plays Schubert Piano Sonata in A Major D664

Mendelssohn / String Symphony No. 7 in D minor,Northern Chamber Orchestra, Nicolas Ward, great compositions/performances


Mendelssohn / String Symphony No. 7 in D minor

Historic musical Bits: Brahms / Herbert von Karajan, 1957: Variations On A Theme By Haydn, Op. 56a , great compositions/performances


Brahms / Herbert von Karajan, 1957: Variations On A Theme By Haydn, Op. 56a – Complete

Today In History. What Happened This Day In History


Today In History. What Happened This Day In History

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

February 16

1760   Cherokee Indians held hostage at Fort St. George are killed in revenge for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
1804   US Navy lieutenant Steven Decatur leads a small group of sailors into Tripoli harbor and burns the USS Philadelphia, captured earlier by Barbary pirates.
1862   Fort Donelson, Tennessee, falls to Grant’s Federal forces, but not before Nathan Bedford Forrest escapes.
1865   Columbia, South Carolina, surrenders to Federal troops.
1923   Bessie Smith makes her first recording “Down Hearted Blues.”
1934   Thousands of Socialists battle Communists at a rally in New York’s Madison Square Garden.
1937   Dupont patents a new thread, nylon, which will replace silk in a number of products and reduce costs.
1940   The British destroyer HMS Cossack rescues British seamen from a German prison ship, the Altmark, in a Norwegian fjord.
1942   Tojo outlines Japan’s war aims to the Diet, referring to “new order of coexistence” in East Asia.
1945   American paratroopers land on Corregidor, in a campaign to liberate the Philippines.
1951   Stalin contends the U.N. is becoming the weapon of aggressive war.
1952   The FBI arrests 10 members of the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina.
1957   A U.S. flag flies over an outpost in Wilkes Land, Antarctica.
1959   Fidel Castro takes the oath as Cuban premier in Havana.
1965   Four persons are held in a plot to blow up the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell and the Washington Monument.
1966   The World Council of Churches being held in Geneva, urges immediate peace in Vietnam.
1978   China and Japan sign a $20 billion trade pact, which is the most important move since the 1972 resumption of diplomatic ties.
Born on February 16
1620   Frederick William, founder of Brandenburg-Prussia.
1838   Henry Adams, U.S. historian, son and grandson of the presidents.
1852   Charles Taze Russell, founder of the International Bible Students Association which later became the Jehovah’s Witnesses.
1845   Quinton Hogg, English philanthropist.
1886   Van Wyck Brooks, biographer, critic and literary historian.
1903   Edgar Bergen, ventriloquist and radio comedian.
1904   George Kennan, U.S. diplomat and historian.
1944   Richard Ford, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist (The Sportswriter, Independence Day).

– See more at: http://www.historynet.com/today-in-history#sthash.HlmRyEXu.dpuf

today’s birthday: Richard Ford, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist


Richard Ford, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
This article is about the American author. For other people, see Richard Ford (disambiguation).
Richard Ford
Richard Ford at Göteborg Book Fair 2013 01.jpg

American writer Richard Ford at the Göteborg Book Fair 2013
Born February 16, 1944 (age 70)
Jackson, Mississippi
Occupation novelist, short story writer
Nationality United States
Period 1976–present
Genre Literary fiction
Literary movement Dirty realism

Richard Ford (born February 16, 1944) is an American novelist and short story writer. His best-known works are the novel The Sportswriter and its sequels, Independence Day and The Lay of the Land, and the short story collection Rock Springs, which contains several widely anthologized stories.      read more

 

today’s image: Alice Lee Roosevelt


Alice Lee Roosevelt

Alice Lee Roosevelt, President Theodore Roosevelt’s irrepressible eldest daughter, married Congressman Nicholas Longworth of Ohio in an elaborate White House ceremony on February 17, 1906. Heedless of social convention, Alice’s behavior routinely shocked her family and friends. Once the president, when confronted with another of Alice’s escapades, remarked, ‘I can do one of two things, I can run the country or control Alice. I cannot do both.’ Nevertheless, the world public was captivated with the first daughter, who seemed to embody the ideal Gay Nineties woman. In spite of its promising beginning, Alice’s 25-year marriage to Longworth was not a happy one, but Alice reigned as the grande dame of Washington, D.C. society for another 50 years. This photo was taken on March 24, 1902.

Photo: Library of Congress

– See more at: http://www.historynet.com/picture-of-the-day#sthash.QjHzCPzg.dpuf

today’s holiday: Presidents’ Day (2015)


Presidents’ Day (2015)

The passage in 1968 of Public Law 90-363, also known as the “Monday Holiday Law,” changed the observance of Washington’s Birthday from February 22 to the third Monday in February. Because it occurs so soon after Lincoln’s Birthday, many states—such as Hawaii, Minnesota, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Wyoming—combine the two holidays and call it Presidents’ Day or Washington-Lincoln Day. Some regard it as a day to honor all former presidents of the US. More… Discuss

quotation: Friedrich Nietzsche


In song and dance man expresses himself as a member of a higher community: he has forgotten how to walk and speak and is on the way toward flying up into the air, dancing.Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) Discuss

this day in the yesteryear: Kyoto Protocol Comes into Force (2005)


Kyoto Protocol Comes into Force (2005)

The 1992 Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, produced a treaty aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions in order to combat global warming. Representatives of 172 nations agreed to work toward the sustainable development of the planet, although most of the agreements were not legally binding. In 1997, an amendment was negotiated called the Kyoto Protocol, by which participating nations commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide. Which countries have not ratified the agreement? More… Discuss

“Zombie Cat” in Custody Battle


“Zombie Cat” in Custody Battle

It’s the story that won’t die. Bart the “zombie cat,” who crawled out of his shallow grave last month after being hit by a car and prematurely buried, is now the subject of a custody battle. Bart was supposed to be returned to his owner following jaw and eye surgeries at the Humane Society of Tampa Bay, Florida, but the organization decided not to release the cat, it said, after learning more about the “circumstances leading up to his burial.” In response, the owner filed a legal motion demanding the return of his pet. An animal welfare check at the owner’s house did not turn up anything suspicious, but, as of last week, Bart was still under the Humane Society’s care. More… Discuss

people and places: Mombasa


Mombasa

Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, with a population of 900,000. Until the 16th century, Mombasa was a center of the Arab trade in ivory and slaves. The city was visited by Vasco da Gama on his first voyage to India, and it was burned three times by the Portuguese. Today, Mombasa serves as a chief port for Kenya, Uganda, and northeast Tanzania, and its beaches and resorts attract thousands of tourists annually. What tragic series of events happened here on November 28, 2002? More… Discuss

word: assuage


assuage

Definition: (verb) To make (something burdensome or painful) less intense or severe.
Synonyms: alleviate, relieve, palliate
Usage: Food, however, became scarce, and I often spent the whole day searching in vain for a few acorns to assuage the pangs of hunger. Discuss.

From NPR News


Beyond BPA: Court Battle Reveals A Shift In Debate Over Plastic Safety http://n.pr/1zaMx7y

Posted from WordPress for Android

VOA : US Celebrates Presidents’ Day Holiday


http://www.voanews.com/A/2645659.html

Posted from WordPress for Android

FILE – George Washington’s face on Mount Rushmore.


http://gdb.voanews.com/2CE1A295-9D54-4563-921B-C6943281BA0D_cx0_cy21_cw42_r1_s_w1024_s.jpg

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Fifty Shades whips US box office


Fifty Shades whips US box office http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-31486029

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : China expels top party official


China expels top party official http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-31484049

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Collider hopes for a ‘super’ restart


Collider hopes for a ‘super’ restart http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-31476337

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Satellites track snail disease risk


Satellites track snail disease risk http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-31483629

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : What’s the point of satire?


What’s the point of satire? http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-31442441

Posted from WordPress for Android

From BBC : Monitors press to enter Ukraine town


Monitors press to enter Ukraine town http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-31483116

Posted from WordPress for Android