Tag Archives: Argentina

Pope Francis: Beware the ‘false peace’ that comes from the devil


Pope Francis greets pilgrims in St. Peters Square before the Wed. general audience April 16, 2014. Credit: Daniel Ibanez/CNA.

Pope Francis greets pilgrims in St. Peters Square before the Wed. general audience April 16, 2014. Credit: Daniel Ibanez/CNA

Vatican City, Aug 7, 2015 / 07:00 am (CNA/EWTN News).- Pope Francis on Friday told a group of youth that the greatest challenge in his vocation so far has been finding true peace, and encouraged them to learn how to discern between this peace and the one offered by the devil.

“I would say finding peace in the Lord. That peace that only Jesus can give, in work and chores,” the Pope said Aug. 7. in response to the question, posed by one of the youth he met with in audience that day.

“The key is finding that peace which means that the Lord is with you and helps you,” he said.

Francis then stressed the importance of knowing how to tell the difference between peace from God, and the false peace offered by the devil.

True peace, he said, always comes from Jesus, and is sometimes “wrapped” in the cross, while the other, false peace that only makes you “kind of happy” comes from the devil.

“We have to ask for this grace to distinguish, to know true peace,” the Pope said, explaining that while on the outside we might think everything is ok and that we’re doing good, “way down inside is the devil.”

“The devil always destroys. He tells you this is the way and then leaves you alone,” he continued, adding that the devil is “a poor payer; he always rips you off.”

A sign of this peace, Francis said, is joy, because true joy is something that only Jesus can give.

The challenge for both them and himself “is to find the peace of Jesus, also in difficult moments, to find Jesus’ peace and to recognize that peace which has make-up on it,” the Pope said.

He made his comments during an audience with more than 1500 members of the International Eucharistic Youth Movement. They are meeting in Rome from Aug. 4-10 in honor of the 100th anniversary of their founding in 1915. The theme for the gathering is “Joy be with you.”

Six of the youth present, from Italy, Indonesia, Argentina, Brazil, Taiwan, and France got to meet the Pope personally and ask him questions on things that affect their daily life.

Among the topics discussed were tensions and conflicts within families and society, the discernment between true and false peace, signs of hope in the world and deepening one’s relationship with Jesus in the Eucharist.

In his response to the question on conflict, Pope Francis noted how there are many conflicts present in the world, and said that we should neither be afraid of them nor seek them out. Some conflicts, he said, can be good and help us to understand differences.

One problem with the world’s current conflicts is that “one culture doesn’t tolerate another,” he said, and pointed to the Rohingya as an example.

Rohingya people are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group largely from the Rakhine state of Burma, in west Myanmar. Since clashes began in 2012 between the state’s Buddhist community and the long-oppressed Rohingya Muslim minority, more than 100,000 Rohingya’s have fled Myanmar by sea, according to the U.N.

In order to escape forced segregation from the rest of the population inside rural ghettos, many of the Rohingya – who are not recognized by the government as a legitimate ethnic group or as citizens or Myanmar – have made the perilous journey at sea in hopes of evading persecution.

In May Pope Francis spoke out after a number of Rohingya people – estimated to be in the thousands – were stranded at sea in boats with dwindling supplies while Southeastern nations such as Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia refused to take them in.

This, he told the youth, “is called killing. It’s true. If I have a conflict with you and I kill you, its war.”

Conflict is normal when so many different cultures exist in one country, the Pope observed, but emphasized that there must be mutual respect in order for these conflicts to be resolved.

He said that dialogue is the best resolution to the great social problems of today, and pointed to the persecution of Christians in the Middle East as an example of when one culture doesn’t respect the identity or faith of another.

Yesterday Pope Francis wrote a letter to the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem S.B. Fouwad Toual for the Aug. 8 anniversary of the first arrival of Iraqi refugees in Jordan.

In his letter, the Pope thanked Jordan for welcoming the refugees, saying their actions bear witness to Christ’s resurrection.

He also noted how these refugees are “victims of fanaticism and intolerance, often under the eyes and silence of all,” and called on the international community to step up their efforts in putting an end to the persecution of Christians and other religious minorities.

In his speech to the youth, Francis said that even if you disagree with another culture’s practice, “Respect. Look for the good in it. Respect. In this way, conflicts are resolved with respect for the identity of others. Conflicts are resolved with dialogue.”

Another question posed to the Pope was if he sees true signs of joy in amid the problems of the 21st century.

Pope Francis responded by saying that the signs are there, and that one of them is seeing so many youth gathered together who believe that Jesus is truly in the Eucharist.

He also pointed to the family, noting that right now there are many strong tensions between generations.

Often when we speak of generations, parents and children come to mind, but grandparents are frequently left out, Francis observed.

“Grandparents are the great forgotten of this time,” he said, and encouraged the youth to speak to their grandparents, who are sources of wisdom due to the memory they have of life, tensions, conflicts and faith.

“Always when you meet your grandparents you find a surprise. They are patient, they know how to listen…don’t forget grandparents, understand?”

The last question the Pope answered, posed by a youth named Maradona, was what he would say to young people so that they might discover the depth of the Eucharist.

Francis immediately turned to the Last Supper, where Jesus gave us his body and blood for our salvation.

“The memory of Jesus…is there. The memory of the gesture of Jesus who then went to the Mount of Olives to start his Passion,” which is a personal act of love for each individual, he said.

The Pope stressed that Mass is not a ritual or a ceremony like what we see in the military or cultural celebration. Instead, going to Mass means going to Calvary with Jesus, where he gave his life for us, the Pope said.

In order to deepen in the mystery of the Eucharist, Francis suggested remembering St. Paul’s invitation to “remember Jesus Christ. When they are there at the table, he is giving his life for me. And so you deepen in the mystery.”

Pope Francis concluded by saying that although “we are at war” and there are so many conflicts, there are also many good and beautiful things, such as the hidden everyday saints among the people of God.

“God is present and there are so many reasons to be joyful. Take courage and go forward!” he finished.
via
http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/whats-pope-francis-biggest-challenge-finding-true-peace-25749/

 

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Buenos Aires


Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port. Located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of South America, it is the most heavily industrialized city of Argentina. It is a major food-processing center with huge meatpacking plants. It was first settled in the 16th century and was subordinate to the Spanish Viceroy of Peru. The criollo citizens of Buenos Aires successfully ousted the Spanish Viceroy in what year? More… Discuss

quotation: I believe there’s no proverb but what is true; Miguel de Cervantes


I believe there’s no proverb but what is true; they are all so many sentences and maxims drawn from experience, the universal mother of sciences.

Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) Discuss

Yerba Mate in Buenos Aires


Yerba Mate-Rosamonte_My Digital Oil Paintings Series

yerba mate tea served in gourd with bombilla straw.

Gourd and bombilla straw

Koeh-074

 

 

Newtons_cradle_animation_book_2

Yerba Mate in Buenos Aires

Pope Francis and the drink of Peace: Yerba Mate | Look South


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Ucranian immigrants cropping yerba mate in Tre...

Ucranian immigrants cropping yerba mate in Tres Capones, Misiones, Argentina. House of V. Hnatiuk (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Plantation in Misiones, Argentina.

Plantation in Misiones, Argentina. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

 

 

 

Pope Francis and the drink of Peace: Yerba Mate

 

June 21, 2013 · by Look South · in Argentina, South America, Tourism, Tours, Travel. ·

 

In the midst of political, religious, national, economic or personal problems, there is one thing that unites all Argentines: Mate.

Mate (pronounced máh-teh) despite what many people may say, is NOT in fact a herbal green tea although it is similar to one. Mate is a tea-like drink made from a green-colored jerboa (herb) that is a lot more robust than tea. For Argentines, mate is the very heart of life and is part of their tradition. It is drunk by the old and young, rich and poor, Peronists and Radicals, parents and children, during winter and summer

After years of conflict, Argentina’s President Cristina Kirchner greeted the new Pope Francis with a beautiful mate set – el “mate de la paz” – after which the pope asked her to stay for lunch with “unos mates” to follow”. Rocco Palmo noted on the occasion that: “A longstanding Vatican protocol forbids the Pope being seen consuming anything but the Eucharist”, but this did not stop him being photographed enjoying the drink.

via Pope Francis and the drink of Peace: Yerba Mate | Look South.

 

 

today’s holiday: Argentina National Day of Memory for Truth and Justice (2015)


Argentina National Day of Memory for Truth and Justice (2015)

In Argentina, this is a public holiday that commemorates all those who lost their lives or otherwise suffered under the National Reorganization Process, a military dictatorship that seized power in Argentina on March 24, 1976. The junta held power for eight years, and, in that time, at least 30,000 citizens were kidnapped, tortured, and executed for their political views. Around the country, art exhibitions, poetry readings, prayer services, and other cultural events are dedicated to remembering the events of March 24. More… Discuss

If you care about God’s handiwork you’ll protect nature, Pope says


If you care about God‘s handiwork you’ll protect nature, Pope says
Lake Mountain Mist Nature (CC0 1.0).

By Ann Schneible

.- Set to finish his encyclical on the environment next month, Pope Francis said during his daily Mass at the Vatican on Monday that Christians who fail to safeguard nature do not care about God’s handiwork.

“A Christian who does not protect creation, who does not allow it to grow, is a Christian who does not care about God’s labors” which are borne out of God’s love for us, the Pope said Feb. 9.

His remarks were based in part on the day’s first reading from Genesis 1:1-19, comparing God’s creation of the universe with the Jesus’ “re-creation” of that which “had been ruined by sin.”

Pope Francis announced to journalists on his way to the Philippines last month that plans to have his much-anticipated encyclical on man’s relationship with creation finished in March. 

More here

word: bravado


bravado

Definition: (noun) Defiant or swaggering behavior.
Synonyms: bluster
Usage: In a moment it was hand-to-hand fighting, and Trent was cursing already the bravado which had brought him out to the open. Discuss.

Kempff plays Schubert Piano Sonata in A Major D664. great compositions/performances


Kempff plays Schubert Piano Sonata in A Major D664

Schubert: 6 Moments Musical Op.94 (D780) Wilhelm Backhaus (1884-1969) Piano, great compositions/performances


Schubert: 6 Moments Musical Op.94 (D780)

(listen to more classical music at euzicasa: here  here here and many more)

today’s holiday: Hostos Day (2015)


Hostos Day (2015)

Eugenio Maria de Hostos (1839-1903) was a Puerto Rican philosopher and patriot who became a leader of the opposition to Spanish colonial rule in the 19th century. He campaigned for the education of women in Brazil, and his books on law and education triggered reforms in other Latin American countries. He even sponsored the first railroad between Chile and Argentina, across the Andes Mountains. The anniversary of his birth is observed as a public holiday in Puerto Rico on the second Monday in January. More… Discuss

Schubert Symphony No 5 B flat major Bavarian RSO Maazel, great compositions/performances


Schubert Symphony No 5 B flat major Bavarian RSO Maazel

Franz Schubert – Rondo A-Dur, D.438 (1816): Arcos Orchcestra, great compositions/performances


Franz Schubert – Rondo A-Dur, D.438 (1816)

En Argentina: Hallan hongo que mata al transmisor del dengue y del Chikungunya (Scientists find a fungus that kills the transmitter of dengue and Chikungunya): “Leptolegnia chapmanii”


In Argentina: Hallan fungus that kills the transmitter of dengue and Chikungunya

SALUD | En Argentina

Científicos hallan un hongo que mata al transmisor del dengue y Chikungunya

Un hongo denominado “Leptolegnia chapmanii” puede sobrevivir en aguas turbias o cristalinas de temperaturas variables y es cultivable a bajo costo, por lo que aparece como una prometedora arma para destruir las larvas de los mosquitos transmisores.

EL UNIVERSAL
miércoles 20 de agosto de 2014  04:01 PM

Buenos Aires.- Científicos argentinos hallaron un hongo, adaptable a múltiples hábitat, que destruye las larvas de los mosquitos transmisores del dengue y Chikungunya, dos epidemias virales sin vacunas comerciales y cuyo control se basa en la prevención.

Este hongo, denominado “Leptolegnia chapmanii”, puede sobrevivir en aguas turbias o cristalinas, con distintos PH, a temperaturas variables y es cultivable a bajo costo por lo que aparece como una prometedora arma biológica.

Su poder mortífero probó ser efectivo en larvas de 15 especies de mosquitos, entre ellas las del Aedes Aegypti y Aedes Albopistus, vectores del dengue, una enfermedad viral tropical que puede llegar a ser mortal en su variante hemorrágica y es endémica en muchos países. >>>>>>>>>>more HERE<<<<<<<<<<

Google Translator said:    https://translate.google.com/#auto/en/

HEALTH | In Argentina


Scientists find a fungus that kills the transmitter of dengue and Chikungunya
A fungus called “Leptolegnia chapmaniican survive in cloudy or clear waters of varying temperatures and is cultivated at low cost, so it appears as a promising weapon to destroy the larvae of mosquitoes.
EL UNIVERSAL
Wednesday August 20, 2014 4:01 PM
BUENOS AIRES Argentine scientists have found a fungus, adaptable to multiple habitat, which destroys the larvae of mosquitoes that carry dengue and Chikungunya, two viral epidemics no commercial vaccines and whose control is based on prevention.

This fungus, called “Leptolegnia chapmaniican survive in cloudy or clear waters with varying pH at varying temperatures and is cultivated at low cost so it appears as a promising biological weapon.

Its lethality proved effective in larvae of 15 species of mosquitoes, including Aedes aegypti and Aedes of Albopistus, vectors of dengue, a viral tropical disease that can be fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever and is endemic in many countries.

 

 

ASMR Videos on BBC


ASMr Videos on BBC

ASMR Videos on BBC (click to access website)

Deep Chakra Meditation *Calming and Relaxing*

this pressed: Argentina’s Senate passes bill to expel foreigners caught breaking the law


Argentina‘s Senate passes bill to expel foreigners caught breaking the law

BUENOS AIRES, Argentina – Argentina’s Senate has passed a bill to expel foreigners caught breaking the law.

Senators approved the legislation 39-24 on Wednesday.

The bill backed by President Cristina Fernandez is expected to be passed by the lower house as well and turned into law. Fernandez has said there is a growing number of foreigners entering Argentina to commit crimes.

Under the bill, foreigners caught breaking the law can be immediately expelled from Argentina and banned from returning for at least five years. Foreign-born people with legal residence can ask to remain in Argentina to serve out their sentence for the crime.

Argentines are growing increasingly worried about rising crime in their country.

Rights groups say foreigners represent a fraction of law breakers and say the proposed law could leave to unfair treatment.

via Argentina’s Senate passes bill to expel foreigners caught breaking the law.

this Pressed: Pope Francis: People and not money create development §RV— Vatican – news (@news_va_en)


today’s holiday/Feast of Saint: Feast of St. Frances Cabrini


Feast of St. Frances Cabrini

The first American citizen to be proclaimed a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, Francesca Xavier Cabrini (1850-1917) was born in Italy. She founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart in 1880 and went on to establish orphanages, schools, and hospitals in many American cities, as well as in Europe and South America. She was canonized on July 7, 1946. Her feast day is commemorated in many places, but particularly at Mother Cabrini High School in New York City, in whose chapel she is buried, and at every establishment of the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart. More… Discuss
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More Saints of the Day

today’s birthday: Julio Cortázar (1914) “French: a culture of inclusion”


 

Français : Plaque commémorative, 4 rue Martel,...

Français : Plaque commémorative, 4 rue Martel, Paris 10 e . « Ici vécut Julio Cortázar, 1914-1984, écrivain argentin naturalisé français, auteur de Marelle. » (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Julio Cortázar (1914)

Cortázar was an Argentinean novelist who gained recognition as one of the century’s major experimental writers. A permanent resident of France after 1951, his works reflect his interest in French Surrealism, psychoanalysis, photography, jazz, and revolutionary Latin American politics. His masterpiece, Rayuela—translated as Hopscotch—creates a world in which eroticism, humor, and play offer solace for life’s cruelty and despair. What is unique about the novel’s structure? More… Discuss

today’s holiday: Uruguay Independence Day


Uruguay Independence Day

This national holiday commemorates the declaration of independence of Uruguay from Portuguese rule on this day in 1825. By 1828, Uruguay was officially autonomous. Patriotic ceremonies are held in the capital city of Montevideo, with speeches and the singing of the national anthem. More… Discuss

Elevazione – Adagio para oboé violoncelo, orquestra de cordas e orgão. Domenico Zipoli: make music part of your life series


Elevazione – Adagio para oboé violoncelo, orquestra de cordas e orgão. Domenico Zipoli

 FROM

Recital de formatura em oboé. Oboé: Lília Reis; Cello: Rodolpho Borges.
Escola de Música de Brasília. 10/09/2009.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Domenico Zipoli (17 October 1688 – 2 January 1726) was an Italian Baroque composer who worked and died in Córdoba (Argentina). He became a Jesuit in order to work in the Reductions of Paraguay where his musical expertise contributed to develop the natural musical talents of the Guaranis. He is remembered as the most accomplished musician among Jesuit missionaries.

Early training and career

Zipoli was born in Prato, Italy, where he received elementary musical training. However, there are no records of him having entered the cathedral choir. In 1707, and with the patronage of Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, he was a pupil of the organist Giovani Maria Casini in Florence. In 1708 he briefly studied under Alessandro Scarlatti in Naples, then Bologna and finally in Rome under Bernardo Pasquini. Two of his oratorios date to this early period: San Antonio di Padova (1712) and Santa Caterina, Virgine e martire (1714). Around 1715 he was made the organist of the Church of the Gesù (a Jesuit parish, the mother church for The Society of Jesus), in Rome, a prestigious post. At the very beginning of the following year, he finished his best known work, a collection of keyboard pieces titled Sonate d’intavolatura per organo e cimbalo.

Jesuit musician-missionary

For reasons that are not clear, Zipoli travelled to Sevilla, Spain, in 1716, where, on 1 July, he joined the Society of Jesus with the desire to be sent to the Reductions of Paraguay in Spanish Colonial America. Still a novice, he left Spain with a group of 53 missionaries who reached Buenos Aires on 13 July 1717.

He completed his formation and sacerdotal studies in Cordoba (in contemporary Argentina) (1717–1724) though, for the lack of an available bishop, he could not be ordained priest. All through these few years he served as music director for the local Jesuit church. Soon his works came to be known in Lima, Peru. Struck by an unknown infectious disease, Zipoli died in the Jesuit house of Cordoba, on 2 January 1726. A previous theory placing his death in the ancient Jesuit church of Santa Catalina, in the hills of the Province of Córdoba (Argentina), has now been discredited. His burial place has never been found.

Legacy

Zipoli continues to be well known today for his keyboard music. His Italian compositions have always been known but recently some of his South American church music was discovered in Chiquitos, Bolivia: two Masses, two psalm settings, three Office hymns, a Te Deum laudamus and other pieces. A Mass copied in Potosí, Bolivia in 1784, and preserved in Sucre, Bolivia, seems a local compilation based on the other two Masses. His dramatic music, including two complete oratorios and portions of a third one, is mostly gone. Three sections of the ‘Mission opera’ San Ignacio de Loyola – compiled by Martin Schmid in Chiquitos many years after Zipoli’s death, and preserved almost complete in local sources – have been attributed to Zipoli.

Society of Jesus
The JHS or IHS monogram of the name of Jesus (...

The JHS or IHS monogram of the name of Jesus (or traditional Christogram symbol of western Christianity), derived from the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus, Iota-Eta-Sigma (ΙΗΣΟΥΣ). Partly based on memories of church decorations. Has some degree of resemblance to a portion of the emblem of the Jesuits, due to common medieval influences (see Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus), but is not exactly the same, nor intended to be so. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

History of the Jesuits
Regimini militantis
Suppression

Jesuit Hierarchy
Superior General
Adolfo Nicolás

Ignatian Spirituality
Spiritual Exercises
Ad majorem Dei gloriam
Magis

Notable Jesuits
St. Ignatius of Loyola
St. Francis Xavier
St. Peter Faber
St. Aloysius Gonzaga
St. Robert Bellarmine
St. Peter Canisius
St. Edmund Campion
Pope Francis

 

 

news: Monster Dinosaur Find in Argentina


Monster Dinosaur Find in Argentina

Paleontologists have unearthed evidence in Argentina of what may have been the largest creature ever to walk the Earth. The fossilized bones, believed to be those of a previously unknown species of herbivorous titanosaur that roamed the forests of Patagonia some 95 to 100 million years ago, suggest it was 130 ft (40 m) long from head to tail, stood 65 ft (20 m) tall, and weighed a whopping 85 tons—the equivalent of 14 African elephants. More… Discuss

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today’s holiday: Argentine National Day


Argentine National Day

Argentina was one of a number of Spanish colonies controlled by the Spanish viceroy in Lima, Peru. On May 25, 1810, Buenos Aires declared its independence from the viceroyalty but continued to pledge loyalty to the Spanish crown. May 25 is observed throughout the country as the anniversary of the revolution; independence from Spain wasn’t declared until July 9, 1816. Both days are national holidays and are observed with religious services at the cathedral and special performances at the Colón Theatre in Buenos Aires. More… Discuss

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Pope Francis, the Eucharist, and the Culture of Mate | First Thoughts | First Things


mate2In the midst of political, religious, national, and personal battles, there is one thing that unites all Argentines: Mate.

Mate (pronounced máh-teh), despite what you may have heard, is not an herbal green tea. That makes it sound sissy. It is a tea-like drink made from a green-colored yerba (herb), but it is much more robust than tea. For Argentines,

via Pope Francis, the Eucharist, and the Culture of Mate | First Thoughts | First Things.

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The Culture of Yerba Mate: Tradition, tradition, tradition


<b>SOLD!</b> \"Labyrinth\" Mate Gourd & Bombilla, By Javier Zinna
 

The most traditional way to drink yerba mate is like the Indians did – from a cup (gourd) and straw (bombilla). Genuine mate drinkers say a well “cured” mate contributes to the good taste of the drink. Also by using the cup and straw it forcibly removes far more of the valuable nutrients which yerba mate has to offer. Other methods do not. You will need to try your own combination of cups and straws as yerba mate will taste differently in each type. Each person must experiment to find which best suits his taste. !Yerba Mate cups can be made from many different types of material. These include the natural gourd, wood, horns, ceramic, glass or metal.

Click here to learn more about Yerba Mate Gourds

How do I CURE my Yerba Mate Gourd

  • Pyrography is the art of decorating wood or other materials (in this case a Yerba Mate gourd) with burn marks resulting from the controlled application of a heated object such as a poker. It is also known as pokerwork or wood burning.
    Pyrography means “writing with fire” and is the traditional art of using a heated tip or wire to burn or scorch designs onto natural materials such as wood or leather. Burning can be done by means of a modern solid-point tool (similar to a soldering iron) or hot wire tool, or a more basic method using a metal implement heated in a fire, or even sunlight concentrated with a magnifying lens. Pyrography is also a traditional folk art in many European countries, including Hungary, as well as countries such as Argentina in South America.

    • Javier Zinna is one of the greatest mate gourds artisan in Argentina. He is currently living in Misiones, the land of Yerba Mate. Last year the FAM (Feria Artesanías Mercosur) held a contest among the exhibitors who chose their best work to compete. Javier won it. It is a great honor to have his works back in our catalog.

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Matepiece: Yerba Mate


matepiece: Yerba Mate

matepiece: Yerba Mate

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Yerba mate (from Spanish [ˈʝeɾβa ˈmate]; Portuguese: erva-mate [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmatʃe]) is a species of the holly (family Aquifoliaceae), with the binomial name of Ilex paraguariensis.


Yerba_mate_young_plant (Ilex Paraguariensis)

Yerba_mate_young_plant (Ilex Paraguariensis)

Yerba mate (from Spanish [ˈʝeɾβa ˈmate]; Portuguese: erva-mate [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmatʃe]) is a species of the holly (family Aquifoliaceae), with the binomial name of Ilex paraguariensis.

It is well known as the source of the beverage called mate, Chimarrão, Tererê (or Tereré) and other variations, traditionally consumed in subtropical South America, particularly northeastern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay.[1] It was first used and cultivated by the Guaraní people and in some Tupí communities in southern Brazil, prior to the European colonization. It was scientifically classified by the Swiss botanist Moses Bertoni, who settled in Paraguay in 1895.

Yerba mate, erva mate, mate, or maté
Ilex paraguariensis
Ilex paraguariensis
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Aquifoliales
Family: Aquifoliaceae
Genus: Ilex
Species: I. paraguariensis
Binomial name
Ilex paraguariensis
A. St. Hil.

Use as a beverage

Main article: Mate (beverage)

Steaming mate infusion in its customary gourd

The infusion, called mate in Spanish-speaking countries or chimarrão in south Brazil, is prepared by steeping dry leaves (and twigs) of the mate plant in hot water rather than in boiling water. It is consumed similar to a tea, more traditionally hot, but sometimes cold.

Drinking mate with friends from a shared hollow gourd (also called a guampa, porongo or mate in Spanish, or cabaça or cuia in Portuguese, or zucca in Italian) with a metal straw (a bombilla in Spanish, bomba in Portuguese) is a common social practice in Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil among people of all ages.

Yerba mate is most popular in Uruguay, where people are seen walking on the street carrying the “mate” and “termo” in their arms and where you can find hot water stations to refill the “termo” while on the road. In Argentina, 5 kg (11 lb) of yerba mate is consumed each year per every man, woman, and child, while in Uruguay, the largest consumer of mate per capita, 10 kg (22 lb) of yerba mate is consumed per person per year.[5]

The flavor of brewed mate resembles an infusion of vegetables, herbs, and grass, and is reminiscent of some varieties of green tea. Some consider the flavor to be very agreeable, but it is generally bitter if steeped in boiling water. Flavored mate is also sold, in which the mate leaves are blended with other herbs (such as peppermint) or citrus rind.[6]

In Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina, a toasted version of mate, known as mate cocido (Paraguay), chá mate (Brazil) or just mate, is sold in teabags and in a loose leaf form. It is often served sweetened in specialized shops or on the street either hot or iced with fruit juice or milk. In Argentina and southern Brazil, this is commonly consumed for breakfast or in a café for afternoon tea, often with a selection of sweet pastries.

An iced, sweetened version of toasted mate is sold as an uncarbonated soft drink, with or without fruit flavoring.[7][better source needed] In Brazil, this cold version of chá mate is specially popular in South and Southeast regions, and can easily be found in retail stores in the same cooler as soft-drinks.[8] Mate batido, which is toasted, has less of a bitter flavor and more of a spicy fragrance. Mate batido becomes creamy when shaken. Mate batido is more popular in the coastal cities of Brazil, as opposed to the far southern states, where it is consumed in the traditional way (green, consumed with a silver straw from a shared gourd), and called chimarrão.and in Argentina, this is called cimarrón.[9]

In Paraguay, western Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, west of São Paulo) and the Litoral Argentino, a mate infusion is also consumed as a cold or iced beverage and called tereré or tererê (in Spanish and Portuguese, respectively), and is usually sucked out of a horn cup called guampa with a bombilla. Tereré can be prepared using cold or iced water (the most common way in Paraguay) or using cold or iced fruit juice (the most common way in Argentina). The “only water” version may be too bitter, but the one prepared using fruit juice is sweetened by the juice itself. Medicinal herbs, known as yuyos, are mixed in a mortar and pestle and added to the water for taste or medicinal reasons. Tereré is most popular in Paraguay, Brazil, and the Litoral (northeast Argentina).[10]

In the Rio de la Plata region, people often consume daily servings of mate. It is common for friends to convene to matear several times a week. In cold weather, the beverage is served hot and in warm weather the hot water is often substituted with lemonade, but not in Uruguay. Children often take mate with lemonade or milk, as well.[citation needed]

As Europeans often meet at a coffee shop, drinking mate is the impetus for gathering with friends in Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Sharing mate is ritualistic and has its own set of rules. Usually, one person, the host or whoever brought the mate, prepares the drink and refills the gourd with water. In these three countries, the hot water can be contained in a vacuum flask, termo (appropriate for drinking mate in the outside) or garrafa térmica (Brazil), or in a pava (kettle), which only can be done at home.[citation needed]

The gourd is passed around, often in a circle, and each person finishes the gourd before giving it back to the brewer. The gourd (also called a mate) is passed in a clockwise order. Since mate can be rebrewed many times, the gourd is passed until the water runs out. When persons no longer want to take mate, they say gracias (thank you) to the brewer when returning the gourd to signify they do not want any more.[citation needed]

During the month of August, Paraguayans have a tradition of mixing mate with crushed leaves, stems, and flowers of the plant known as flor de Agosto[11] (the flower of August, plants of the Senecio genus), which contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Modifying mate in this fashion is potentially toxic, as these alkaloids can cause a rare condition of the liver, veno-occlusive disease, which produces liver failure due to progressive occlusion of the small venous channels in the liver.[12]

In South Africa, mate is not well known, but has been introduced to Stellenbosch by a student who sells it nationally. In the tiny hamlet of Groot Marico in the northwest province, mate was introduced to the local tourism office by the returning descendants of the Boers, who in 1902 had emigrated to Patagonia in Argentina after losing the Anglo Boer War. It is also commonly consumed in Lebanon, Syria and some other parts of the Middle East, as well as amongst communities of expatriate from the Southern Cone.[13]

Chemical composition and properties

Xanthines

Yerba mate contains three xanthines: caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, the main one being caffeine. Caffeine content varies between 0.7% and 1.7% of dry weight[14] (compared with 0.4– 9.3% for tea leaves, 2.5–7.6% in guarana, and up to 3.2% for ground coffee);[15] theobromine content varies from 0.3% to 0.9%; theophylline is present in small quantities, or can be completely absent.[16] A substance previously called “mateine” is a synonym for caffeine (like theine and guaranine).

Preliminary limited studies of mate have shown that the mate xanthine cocktail is different from other plants containing caffeine, most significantly in its effects on muscle tissue, as opposed to those on the central nervous system, which are similar to those of other natural stimulants.[citation needed] The three xanthines present in mate have been shown to have a relaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue, and a stimulating effect on myocardial (heart) tissue.[citation needed]

Mineral content

Yerba mate also contains elements such as potassium, magnesium and manganese.[17]

Health effects

As of 2011 there has not been any double-blind, randomized prospective clinical trial of mate drinking with respect to chronic disease.[18] However, yerba does contain polyphenols, which may benefit the immune system,[19][20] relieve allergies,[21] reduce the risk of diabetes and hypoglycemia in mice,[22] contain compounds that, when extracted from green tea burns more calories,[23] acts as an appetite suppressant and weight loss tool,[24][25] increases the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart,[26] may reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes,[27] increases mental energy and focus,[28][29] improves mood,[30] and promotes a deeper sleep, however sleep may be affected in people who are sensitive to caffeine.[28][31]

Lipid metabolism

Some non-blinded studies have found mate consumption to be effective in lipid lowering.[18] Studies in animals and humans have observed hypocholesterolemic effects of Ilex paraguariensis aqueous extracts. A single-blind controlled trial of 102 volunteers found that after 40 days of drinking 330 mL / day of mate tea (concentration 50g dry leaves / L water), people with already-healthy cholesterol levels experienced an 8.7% reduction in LDL, and hyperlipidemic individuals experienced an 8.6% reduction in LDL and a 4.4% increase in HDL, on average. Participants already on statin therapy saw a 13.1% reduction in LDL and a 6.2% increase in HDL. The authors thus concluded that drinking yerba mate infusions may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases.[32]

Cancer

Any hot consumption of mate is associated with oral cancer[33] esophageal cancer, cancer of the larynx,[34] and squamous cell of the head and neck.[35][36] Studies show a correlation between temperature and likelihood of cancer, making it unclear how much a role mate itself plays as a carcinogen.[34]

A study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer showed a limited correlation between oral cancer and the drinking of large quantities of “hot mate”.[37] Smaller quantities (less than 1 liter daily) were found to increase risk only slightly, though alcohol and tobacco consumption had a synergistic effect on increasing oral, throat, and esophageal cancer. The study notes the possibility that increased risk could be credited to the high (near-boiling) temperatures at which the mate is consumed in its most traditional way, the chimarrão. The cellular damage caused by thermal stress could lead the esophagus and gastric epithelium to be metaplastic, adapting to the chronic injury. Then, mutations would lead to cellular dysplasia and to cancer.[38] While the IARC study does not specify a specific temperature range for “hot mate”, it lists general (not “hot”) mate drinking separately, but does not possess the data to assess its effect. It also does not address, in comparison, any effect of consumption temperature with regard to coffee or tea.

Obesity

Few data are available on the effects of yerba mate on weight in humans and further study may be warranted.[39]

Mechanism of action

E-NTPDase activity

Research also shows that mate preparations can alter the concentration of members of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) family, resulting in an elevated level of extracellular ATP, ADP, and AMP. This was found with chronic ingestion (15 days) of an aqueous mate extract, and may lead to a novel mechanism for manipulation of vascular regenerative factors, i.e., treating heart disease.[40]

Antioxidants

In an investigation of mate antioxidant activity, there was a correlation found between content of caffeoyl-derivatives and antioxidant capacity (AOC).[41][42] Amongst a group of Ilex species, Ilex paraguariensis antioxidant activity was the highest.[41]

History

Main article: History of yerba mate

Yerba mate growing in the wild

Mate was first consumed by the indigenous Guaraní and also spread in the Tupí people that lived in southern Brazil and Paraguay, and became widespread with the European colonization.[citation needed] In the Spanish colony of Paraguay in the late 16th century, both Spanish settlers and indigenous Guaranís, who had, to some extent, before the Spanish arrival, consumed it.[citation needed] Mate consumption spread in the 17th century to the River Plate and from there to Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru.[citation needed] This widespread consumption turned it into Paraguay’s main commodity above other wares, such as tobacco, and Indian labour was used to harvest wild stands.[citation needed]

In the mid 17th century, Jesuits managed to domesticate the plant and establish plantations in their Indian reductions in Misiones, Argentina, sparking severe competition with the Paraguayan harvesters of wild stands.[citation needed] After their expulsion in the 1770s, their plantations fell into decay, as did their domestication secrets.[citation needed] The industry continued to be of prime importance for the Paraguayan economy after independence, but development in benefit of the Paraguayan state halted after the War of the Triple Alliance (1864–1870) that devastated the country both economically and demographically.[citation needed] Some regions with mate plantations in Paraguay became Argentinean territory.[citation needed]

Lithograph of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, a 19th-century ruler of Paraguay, with a mate and its respective bombilla

Brazil then became the largest producer of mate.[43] In Brazilian and Argentine projects in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the plant was domesticated once again, opening the way for plantation systems.[citation needed] When Brazilian entrepreneurs turned their attention to coffee in the 1930s, Argentina, which had long been the prime consumer,[44] took over as the largest producer, resurrecting the economy in Misiones Province, where the Jesuits had once had most of their plantations. For years, the status of largest producer shifted between Brazil and Argentina.[44]

Now, Brazil is the largest producer, with 53%, followed by Argentina, 37% and Paraguay, 10%.[4]

There is a Parque Historico do Mate, funded by the State of Parana, Brazil, to educate people on the sustainable harvesting methods needed to maintain the integrity and vitality of the oldest wild forests of mate in the world.[3]

Nomenclature

The name given to the plant in Guaraní, language of the indigenous people who first cultivated and enjoyed mate, is ka’a, which has the same meaning as “herb”.[citation needed] Congonha, in Portuguese, is derived from the Tupi expression, meaning something like “what keeps us alive”, but a term rarely used nowadays.[citation needed] Mate is from the Quechua mati,[45] a word that means container for a drink, infusion of an herb, as well as gourd.[46] The word mate is used in both, Portuguese and Spanish languages.[citation needed]

The pronunciation of yerba mate in Spanish is [ˈʝe̞rβ̞ä ˈmäte̞][45] The accent on the word is on the first syllable, not the second as might be implied by the variant spelling “maté”.[45] The word hierba is Spanish for “herb”; yerba is a variant spelling of it which was quite common in Argentina.[47] (Nowadays in Argentina “yerba” refers exclusively to the “yerba mate” plant.[47]) Yerba mate, therefore, originally translated literally as the “gourd herb”, i.e. the herb one drinks from a gourd.[citation needed]

The (Brazilian) Portuguese name is either erva-mate [ˈɛʁvɐ ˈmätʃi] (also pronounced [ˈɛrvɐ ˈmäte] or [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmätɪ] in some regions), the most used term, or rarely “congonha” [kõˈɡõȷ̃ɐ], from Old Tupi kõ’gõi, which means “what sustains the being”.[48] It is also used to prepare the drinks chimarrão (hot), tereré (cold) or chá mate (hot or cold). While the chá mate (tea) is made with the toasted leaves, the other drinks are made with green leaves, and are very popular in the south of the country and Mato Grosso. Most people colloquially address both the plant and the beverage simply by the word mate.[8]

Both the spellings “mate” and “maté” are used in English, but the latter spelling is never used in Spanish where it means “I killed” as opposed to “gourd”.[49] There are no variation of spellings in Spanish.[45] The addition of the acute accent over the final “e” was likely added as a hypercorrection, indicating that the word and its pronunciation are distinct from the common English word “mate“.[50][51][52][53][54]

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today’s birthday: Eva Perón (1919)


Eva Perón (1919)

Eva Perón was an actress who became a political and cultural icon as the wife of Argentine president Juan Perón. When Juan entered office in 1946, Eva became a powerful though unofficial political leader alongside her husband. Commonly known by the affectionate diminutive “Evita,” she presided over the creation of a charitable foundation that gave the poor access to healthcare and built schools and whole communities for them. Why was Evita’s corpse hidden for 16 years after her death? More… Discuss

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TODAY’S HOLIDAY: ARGENTINA NATIONAL DAY OF MEMORY FOR TRUTH AND JUSTICE


Argentina National Day of Memory for Truth and Justice

This is a public holiday in Argentina that commemorates all those who lost their lives or otherwise suffered under the National Reorganization Process, a military dictatorship that seized power in Argentina on March 24, 1976. The junta held power for eight years, and in that time, at least 30,000 citizens were kidnapped, tortured, and executed for their political views. Around the country, art exhibitions, poetry readings, prayer services, and other cultural events are dedicated to remembering the events of March 24 and its aftermath. More… Discuss

 

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QUOTATION: Gilbert Chesterton about Justice


The things that happen here do not seem to mean anything; they mean something somewhere else. Somewhere else retribution will come on the real offender. Here it often seems to fall on the wrong person.

Gilbert Chesterton (1874-1936) Discuss

 

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Piranha Attack in Argentina Leaves 70 people injured


Buenos Aires, Argentina: An attack by a school of carnivorous fish has injured 70 people bathing in an Argentine river, including seven children who lost parts of their fingers or toes.

Director of lifeguards Federico Cornier said Thursday that thousands of bathers were cooling off from 38 degree temperatures in the Parana River in Rosario on Wednesday when bathers suddenly began complaining of bite marks on their hands and feet. He blamed the attack on palometas, “a type of piranha, big, voracious and with sharp teeth that can really bite.”

Those injured in the frenzy by the sharp-teethed fish included a girl who lost part of a finger, Health Undersecretary Gabriela Quintanilla told reporters on Thursday.

Read more: http://www.cosmostv.org/2013/12/70-hurt-in-piranha-attack-in-parana.html#ixzz2oesV6ovF

 

 

News: WINE AND DINE, MINUS THE WINE


Wine and Dine, Minus the Wine

The world is in the midst of a wine shortage, and it does not look like it will be letting up any time soon. Global wine production has been on the decline since it peaked in 2004. Last year, the demand for wine exceeded the supply by 300 million cases. Part of the problem is that European wine production has plummeted 25 percent since 2004. Winemaking in other parts of the world, like the US, Australia, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, and New Zealand, has been stepped up, but it is not yet able to keep up with global demand. More… Discuss

 

Ecco l’iceberg che si ribalta


Ecco l'iceberg che si ribalta

Ecco l’iceberg che si ribalta

Immagini rare, catturate per la prima volta su pellicola da un turista: un piccolo iceberg del ghiacciaio di Upsala in Argentina si ribalta.

Network: Where do you get your yerba mate?


One of my readers asked where can she reconnect with yerba mate, here in Southern California around the cities of Long Beach and Lakewood. The place I buy mine is:

Luis Meat Market _ Yerba Mate

Luis Meat Market _ Yerba Mate

Luis Meat Market
9071 Imperial Hwy, Downey, CA  90242 (at Rose Street)
Tel: (562) 622-1188
They have a new place:

Luis Meat Market Bellflower
10308 Artesia Blvd., Bellflower CA  90706
Tel: (562) 461-1111

They have large variety of products from Argentina, Paraqguai, Uruguai, and “mucho mas” (much more). My  brands are Tarragui, Cruz de Malta, Rasamonte, but there are at least 5 other brands to choose from: In the end they are all the same plant- Ilex paraguariensis (Synonyms:I. paraguensis, I. mate, I. domestica, I. sorbilis )
I enjoy the natural dried (not smoke dried), and “sin palo” (without twigs), but some are into “con palo” (with twigs) and smoke dried. Most important thing about this tea: Do not boil, do not add to boiling water, but rather let the water cool for a minute (160-180°F is best for preparing.)

Another thing is: You can buy tea bags, or loose (by the kilogram -2.2 lb), or both (that’s what I do, so I can make tea at work. I make a good quantity of tea green tea, and yerba mate tea, in my 12 cup coffeemaker (perfect temperature interval). The truth is: I drink green tea like water, and it helps control my blood sugar, cholesterol, and appetite.

But daily workout is crucial for a healthy life, at any age. In two generations we changed our traditional lifestyle so much, and what we eat, and how. Two generations back sugar was in many households a Sunday treat, while today it is added to every processed food, making it impossible to avoid.  Like many others I believe that food needs to be natural, instead of  processed.

I’ll leave you with a question: Where do you buy your yerba mate?